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Flashcards in HIV Deck (40)
1

What HIV surface glycoprotein helps dock to CD40?

gp120

2

There are two main tropic types of HIV, what are they? What are the co-receptors associated with each?

X4 = CXCR4 co-receptor when gp120 binds CD40
R5 = CCR5 co-receptor

3

What are the three structural genes in HIV? What does each encode?

env codes for gp120 and gp41
gag codes for the capsid
pol codes for the RT, protease, and integrase

4

This HIV surface protein is involved with viral fusion and entry into host cells:

gp41

5

T/F: HIV has a diploid genome.

T. Has 2 molecules of RNA.

6

Criteria for the diagnosis of AIDS (3):

1. CD4 count < 200, or
2. HIV + with AIDS-defining condition, or
3. CD4 / CD8 ratio < 1.5 (eg <14% of T cells are CD4+

7

This HIV test has a high sensitivity.
This HIV test has a high specificity.

ELISA is highly sensitive (will catch all true positives).
W. blot is highly specific (will remove all the false positives).

8

When might you choose to get an HIV viral load?

1. For patients in the window period of HIV infection (1-2 months post-exposure)
2. For newborns born to HIV infected mothers
3. To monitor treatment response

9

This HIV glycoprotein is needed to attach to a host CD4+ T cell:

gp120

10

What is dual tropism?

Tropism is the preference of some HIV viruses for certain co-receptors when gp120 binds to host cells. This is tropism. Dual tropism is when a virus can bind both.

11

What happens if a person is homozygous for a mutation in CCR5? Heterozygous?

Homozygotes are immune to infection with HIV R5. Heterozygotes may have a slowed course of disease.

12

What drugs constitute HAART?

You need:
2 NRTIs (= NRTI backbone) +
1 other drug (nNRTI or protease inhibitor or integrase inhibitor

13

Which class of HIV drugs end in -navir?

The protease inhibitors.

14

There is one NtRTI. What is it? What is special about this drug?

Tenofovir. It does not need to be activated by phosphorylation, unlike the NRTIs, which do.

15

This drug is used for prophylaxis in newborns and in occupational exposures:

Zidovudine
AZT = ZDV

16

Drugs that contain -vudine belong to which class of HIV meds?

NRTIs

17

Drugs that contain -vir- belong to which class of HIV meds?

NNRTIs

18

This drug is an integrase inhibitor:

Raltegravir

19

Main side effect of protease inhibitors:

GI intolerance.

20

This class of HIV meds can cause lactic acidosis:

NRTIs

21

These HIV medications tend to cause rash:

NNRTIs

22

These two HIV medications cause pancreatitis:

Didanosine = ddI (NRTI)
Raltegravir (integrase inhibitor)

23

Can you name the 3 NNRTIs:

NeVIRapine
EfaVIRenz
DelaVIRdine

24

Seven Protease inhibitors:

LopiNAVIR
AtazaNAVIR
DaruNAVIR
FosampreNAVIR
SaquiNAVIR
RitoNAVIR
IndiNAVIR

25

This class of HIV meds can inhibit CYP 450:

Protease inhibitors

26

This HIV drug class can cause bone marrow suppression:

NRTIs, NNRTIs

27

What kind of medication is Raltegravir?

Integrase inhibitor

28

This HIV med is famed for causing some pretty gnarly neuropsych side effects:

Efavirenz (NNRTI)

29

This HIV medication can cause peripheral neuropathy:

Didanosine = ddI (NRTI)

30

What side effect do these two medications, ddI and raltegravir, share in common?

Both can cause pancreatitis

31

This HIV medication can be given only to people with R5 viruses:

Maravaroc

32

What is the mechanisim of action of Enfuvitide?

Enfuvitide binds viral gp41 and prevents viral fusion with host cells.

33

This drug is a very last resort medication for people with drug issues or resistance to all known drugs. Why?

Enfuvitide, a gp41-binder, it is available in injectible form only and is $$$ costly.

34

Mechanism of action of Maravaroc:

Binds CCR5, prevents HIV's gp120 from docking with host cells. Works against R5 viruses.

35

Lipodistrophy is a side effect of which class of HIV meds?

Protease inhibitors

36

GI intolerance is a side effect of which class of HIV meds?

Protease inhibitors

37

This HIV drug can cause a fatal hypersensitivity reaction:

Abacavir
(Abracadabra! You're dead!)

38

This HIV drug can cause a rise in bilirubin:

Atazanavir

39

This class of HIV meds causes rash:

NNRTIs

40

This HIV med causes both peripheral neuropathy and lactic acidosis:

ddI = didanosine