Flashcards in HIV drugs and antibiotics that can't be used in pregnancy Deck (19):
typical HAART therapy
give 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or 1 protease inhibitor or 1 integrase inhibitor
protease inhibitors: drug name, mechanism
all of these drugs end in -navir.
recall that virion assembly requires HIV-1 protease, which cleaves the products of HIV mRNA into functional parts. protease inhibitors prevent the maturation of new viruses.
this is a protease inhibitor that can boost other drug concentrations by inhibition cytochrome P-450.
toxicity of protease inhibitors
hyperglycemia, GI intolerance, lipodystrophy. indinavir can cause nephropathy and hematuria
NRTIs. Exceptions within this group?
nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. these all inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and terminate the DNA chain (they lack a 3' OH group). tenofovir is a nucleotide, all others are nucleosides that must be phosphorylated to be active.
What drug is used to decrease the likelihood of fetal transmission during pregnancy?
ZDV (zidovudine, used to be called AZT)
toxicity of the NRTIs
bone marrow suppression (may be reversed with G-CSF and erythropoietin), peripheral neuropathy, lactic acidosis (except tenofovir), rash, anemia (ZDV), pancreatitis (esp. didanosine)
this is an NNRTI (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor). others include nevirapine, and delaviridine. these bind to RT at a side different from NRTIs. they don't require phosphorylation to be active or compete with nucleotides.
all case rash and hepatotoxicity. vivid dreams and CNS symptoms are seen with efavirenz. delaviridine and efavirenze are contraindicated in pregnancy
raltegravir. this inhibits HIV genome integration into the hose cell by reversibly inhibiting HIV integrase.
binds gp41 to inhibit viral entry and can cause skin rxn at injection site
binds CCR-5 on surface T cells/monocytes to inhibit interaction with gp120.
these are glycoproteins usually made by virus infected cells. they exhibit many antiviral and antitumor properites
used for chronic hep B and C, kaposi sarcoma, hairy cell leukemia, condyloma acuminatum, renal cell carcionoma, and malignant myeloma.
used in multiple sclerosis
used in chronic granulomatous disease
toxicities of interferons
neutropenia and myopathy