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Flashcards in Homeostasis Deck (138)
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1

What happens when the parasympathetic division is activated in initiating feeding?

Feeding behavior is stimulated

2

What does drinking more water cause in hyponatremia?

Worse conditions. Fave the fluid signal (ADH) mixed with more fluid

3

A fluid containing solutes

Solution

4

What is lipostatic theory and where can it be seen functioning in the body?

We are sensitive to the amount of fats we have. Receptors in the liver monitor fatty acids

5

What does the ventromedial hypothalamus do?

Participates in satiety (fullness)

6

Why do we eat?

Energy and nutrients, pleasure, and complex cultural and psychological factors

7

How is hyponatremia caused?

Extreme endurance activities caused by low extracellular fluid and low Na

8

What are osmoreceptors?

Neurons that change firing rate due to water tonicity

9

What parts of the brain are associated with the hypothalamus?

Infundibulum, anterior pituitary, and posterior pituitary

10

What does angiotensin II do?

Aids in maintaining blood pressure (tightens blood vessels) and signals the adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone which promotes retention of sodium by the kidneys

11

Solutions with equal concentrations of solutes. Goal

Isotonic

12

What leads to hydration?

Water + electrolytes

13

What percentage of body fluid is intracellular?

67%

14

What happens with ADH and Na levels in hyponatremia?

ADH is continuously produced which causes water retention and further reduction in Na concentration

15

What are causes of hypovolemic thirst?

Sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, and blood loss (this is why a cookie and juice is given after blood donations)

16

Contains warm sensitive (30%), cold sensitive (5%), and other neurons (65%)

Preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus

17

What is sensory specific satiety?

When we reject food that's too similar to what we've been having. We want variety

18

Thirst that is caused by eating. The consumption of liquids while eating

Prandial thirst

19

Part of the brain that detects and responds to cooler temps. Shows more neuronal activity when the blood is colder

Posterior hypothalamus

20

How is hyponatremia prevented?

Taking in electrolytes during and before extreme endurance activities. Consumption of salty snacks before/during endurance activities

21

What are prostaglandins?

A product of the hypothalamus that raises our temp set point

22

What are the mechanisms of hypovolemic thirst?

Results from lower volume of interstitial fluid, blood, or both.
Lower blood volume is sensed by receptors in the heart and kidneys
The wall of the heart muscle contains baroreceptors that measure blood pressure
As blood volume decreases, blood pressure decreases as well
The kidneys contain blood flow receptors that also respond to changes in blood volume

23

What does hyponatremia cause?

Hypovolemic thirst, cell swelling, severe headache

24

How is food regulated?

Ebb and flow of nutrient absorption and use (diff patterns in burning energy), short term and long term energy needs (save energy for use later), and body weight set point

25

Disorder of insulin production diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

26

What does a lesion to the OVLT cause?

Reduced drinking in response to salty solution

27

What do kidneys secrete in hypovolemic thirst?

Renin

28

What are the endothermic responses to warm temps?

Perspiration (human default), licking and panting (other animals), and blood vessels dilate near skin surface

29

What does a constant need for energy with feeding occurring intermittently show?

We have to function in low and high caloric settings

30

Signals that encourage food consumption

hunger/appetite