Flashcards in Hospital Corpsman Ch 23 Medical Aspects of Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Warfare Deck (83):
During what conflict was the first large scale use of chemical weapons? What was chemical weapon was used?
World War I
In order for a chemical weapon to be classified as lethal, it must result in a _____ percent or greater death rate among casualties.
What is the most widely used method of detecting liquid chemical warfare agents?
What chemical agent detector kit is portable that detects nerve gas, mustard gas, and cyanide?
How many MOPP levels are there?
A chemical agent on the skin can be removed effectively by using what skin decontamination kit?
What agents are of greatest concern as compared to all chemical agents?
Decontamination of chemical agents on the skin within 1 minute after contamination is perhaps how many times more effective than if decontamination is delayed 5 minutes?
What drug used for treating nerve agents works by removing the nerve agent from the enzyme acetylcholinesterase within the synaptic cleft of the nervous system?
What is a single autoinjector that has two chambers that deliver 2.1mg of Atropine and 600mg of 2-PAM CL in a single injection?
Autoinjector Treatment Nerve Agent Antidote
What chemical weapons exert their primary action on the skin, producing large and painful blisters that are incapacitating?
What are the most vulnerable part of the body to mustard gas?
What agents basic physical actions disrupt oxygen utilization at the cellular level causing cellular suffocation?
Cyanides usually dissipate in less than how many hours?
What agents damage the membranes in the lung that separate the alveolar tissue resulting in fluid from the blood, known as plasma, to leak into the alveoli and fill them with fluid?
What is a colorless gas with a distinctive odor similar to that of new-mown hay or freshly cut grass?
What are essentially local irritants that act primarily on the eyes?
The initial management of a casuality contaminated by chemical agents will require removal of MOPP and decontamination with what percent hypochlorite before treatment?
There are how many different types of Biological Agents used as weapons?
What are single celled organisms capable of causing a variety of diseases in animals, plants, and humans?
What are intracellular parasites that lack a system for their own metabolism, meaning they require living cells in order to multiply?
With recent advances in diagnostic testing, biological agents can be detected in the field. A first-line presumptive test is the Hand-Held Assay Panel that can make an indication of the presence of several biological agents within how many minutes?
What is a disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis?
There are how many types of anthrax in humans?
The average is from 1 to 7 days, although incubation periods of up to how many days can be possible for Anthrax?
About what percent of untreated cases of cutaneous Anthrax will result in death?
Intestinal Anthrax results in death in 25% to what percent of cases?
What is the primary treatment required for Anthrax?
What is an infectious disease that affects animals and humans and is caused by Bacterium Yersinia pestis?
What is the most common form of Plague?
What toxin is the most toxic substance known and is 10-15,000 times more toxic than VX nerve agent by weight?
What is derived from the beans of the castor plant (Ricinus communis) and can be made from the waste material left over from processing castor beans and is a potent toxin that has potential to be used as an agent of biological warfare and as a weapon of mass destruction?
What is a serious, contagous, and sometimes fatal infectous disease caused by the Variola virus that emerged in human populations thousands of years ago?
What is the severe and most common form of Smallpox?
Symptoms of Smallpox infection usually appear within how many days after exposure to the virus?
If an infected person gets the Smallpox vaccine within how many days after exposure to the virus, it may lessen the severity of illness or even prevent illness?
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHF) refer to a group of illnesses that are caused by how many distinct families of viruses?
The only approved VHF vaccination is for what?
The first use of an atomic weapon was durin which war?
What is any device that causes the purposeful dissemination of radioactive material across an area without a nuclear detonation?
Radiological Disbursal Device (RDD)
What may be defined as the spontaneous and instantaneous decomposition if the nucleus of an unstable atom with the accompanying emisson of a particle, a gamma ray or both?
When radiation interacts with atom, energy is deposited, resulting in what?
What are heavy, very short-range particles that are not able to penetrate clothing or human skin?
What is a light, short-range particle and is actually an ejected electron?
Compared to gamma rays, neutrons can cause how many times greater damage to tissue?
What is used to measure a quanity of absorbed dose of radiation?
Radioation Absorbed Dose (RAD)
Two other units that may be used to express radiation units are Roentgen equivalent man (Rem) and what else?
What is used to perform ground radiological surveys in vehicles or in dismounted mode by individual personnel as a handheld instrument?
What is a compact, handheld, or pocket carried, tacticle device that can measure prompt gamma/neutron doses from a nuclear event?
What is a multirange Radiac device that detects beta and gamma radiation?
What is an essential component in preventing/reducing radiation exposure?
What is the most effective shielding material in preventing/reducing radiation exposure?
What is an acute illness caused by irradiation of the body by high dose of penetrating radiation in a very short period of time, usually a matter of minutes?
Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS)
`What is a medical condition caused by long term exposure to low dose radiation?
Chronic Radiation Syndrome (CRS)
What are the three different types of Biological Agents used as weapons?
What are three types of bacteria?
What are three types of Viruses?
What are three types of Toxins?
When is a naval vessel more likely to be involved in a chemical attack?
while in port
What color will M9 paper turn in the presence of nerve or blister agents?
pink, red, reddish brown, purple color
What color will M8 paper turn in the presence of G-class nerve agents?
What color will M8 paper turn in the presence of VX?
Olive or Verdana Green
What color will M8 paper turn if it comes into contact with blister agents?
red or purple
Does M8 or M9 paper detect chemical weapons in the form of a Vapor?
What does the acronym MOPP stand for?
Mission Oriented Protective Postures
In What manual can you find detailed instruction on how to use skin decontamination kits?
What symptoms would you expect to see in someone that had been exposed to a small amount of vapor from a Nerve Agent?
Miosis (constricted pupils)
mild difficulty breathing
What symptoms would you expect to see in someone that had been exposed to a large amount of vapor form a Nerve Agent?
Miosis (constricted pupils)
sudden loss of consciousness
copious secretions form nose, mouth, and lungs
What symptoms would you expect to find in someone who had been exposed to a small amount of a liquid nerve agent?
What symptoms would you expect to find in someone how had been exposed to a large amount of a liquid nerve agent?
sudden loss of consciousness
copious secretions from nose, mouth and lungs
What is the drug of choice when treating nerve agent poisonings? What is the second drug used?
Pralidoxime Chloride (2 PAM CL)
What drug used for treating Nerve agents is an acetylcholine blocker?
What medication can be used to control convusions in patients exposed to nerve agents?
convulsive antidote nerve agent (CANA), which is 10mg diazepam
When using an auto-injector, how long should you hold it in place?
at least 10 seconds
When using the MARK 1 injection kit to treat nerve agent casualties, who many kits can be administered by non-medical personnel?
total of three kits, administered 10 to 15 minutes intervals
If patents have severe symptoms from a Nerve agent, how should the MARK 1 kit be administered?
all three kits administered immediately as well as CANA
If a patent is still having symptoms from a Nerve agent after three MARK 1 kits have been administered, what is the next step in treatment for medical personnel?
Administer Atropine 2mg injections at 5-10 minute intervals until there is a reduction of both secretions and breathing difficulty.
What is the maximum amount of 2-PAM CL medical personnel should administer for a never agent casualty?
In what order should a patient be decontaminated of a nerve agent?
Face, Neck, Chest, Abdomen, Arms and hands, other exposed skin areas
What chemical weapons may have the odor of garlic or horseradish?
What chemical weapon may have an odor similar to geraniums?
What ares of the body are affect most by blister agents?
warm, sweaty areas: armpits, groin, face and neck