Flashcards in Hot Deserts Deck (42):
Describe briefly the distribution of hot environments worldwide.
Hot deserts are found running along the tropics either side of the equator.
Describe the climate of hot deserts.
- Hot deserts have low rainfall all year round, with minimal fluctuation.
- The temperature vary annually and daily with coldest temperatures at night.
How has the Kangaroo adapted to the hot desert environment?
1) Strong, long tail to maintain balance whist hopping long distances.
2) Efficient organs; large intestine reabsorbs water
3) Spit on wrists to cool the blood
4) Strong feet to hop fast and far
How have cacti adapted to hot deserts?
1) Spines instead of leaves to store more water and protect against predators
2) Roots are deep and very wide to increase surface area and water catchment
How has the Camel adapted to hot deserts?
1) Large flat feet tom spread weight
2) Thick fur for shade, fin fur elsewhere
3) Large SA:V to maximize heat lost
4) Can go a long time without water by not urinating and sweating
5) Tolerate body temperature up to 42 dc
6) Lots of eyelashes to keep sand out
What Impact does water have on the desert environment?
- Soil in the deserts is dusty, so water is absorbed or drained away
- The hot temperature cause all available water to evaporate off
What Impact do plants have on the desert environment?
- Bees are able to pollinate all plants
- Ocotillo has wide root system to absorb all available water in such a dry place
What Impact do animals have on the desert environment?
- The Guanaco has adapted to the desert environment by having dust baths due to water shortages
- Condensed mist from the Pacific ocean collects water droplets
- Live in Atacama desert (40oC
What Impact does soil have on the desert environment?
- Gravelly + dry surface, with no leaf litter
- Deep roots gain access to water aquifers
Name all 5 desert development opportunities (Case study)
2) Oil + Gas
3) Solar power
4) Irrigation farming
Name the causes of desertification
1) Overgrazing (ground compacted)
2) Deforestation ( Erosion by rain/wind)
3) More people are moving near to deserts
4) Climate change heating up
Name desertification management strategies
1) Crop selection
2) drip Irrigation
3) Tree planting
4) Set aside compost
5) Crop rotation
7) Sand fences
8) Solar cookers
How does Crop selection prevent desertification?
- Crops are specifically chosen that do not require much water
How does Tree planting prevent desertification?
- Reduces erosion of the soil and the absorption of water. Used elsewhere too.
How does set aside compost prevent desertification?
- Previously used farm fields are let to recover with new soil and palnts
How does Terracing prevent desertification?
- Flash flooding is stopped, so less erosion happens and water can be stored
How do solar cookers prevent desertification?
- Suns energy is used to cook food
- No need for wood
Why would tourists want to visit the Sahara?
People are fascinated by the vast expanse of deserts and there Activities including Camel trekking
Why would it be difficult for tourists to visit the Sahara?
- Not enough water
- Vehicles destroy the landscape, and affects sand viper populations
- Hot temps (40oC) - causing sunstroke
- Only seasonal employment
How many people visited Marrakech in 2013?
Why are people interested in oil in the Sahara?
Sahara desert has large oil reserves. Over half of Algeria's GDP
Where is Haasi Messaoud?
In the Algerian desert.
Why is it difficult to extract oil from Haasi Messaoud?
It is very remote and hard to get to so you travel there by plane.
How many people work at Haasi Messaoud?
40,000 people who need food and water
What are some other problems with oil extraction?
- Large pipes carry extracted oil, which is very obtrusive towards the environment
- Drilling for oil is difficult
How much is Egypt spending on new irrigation systems?
Egypt is spending $70 billion on new irrigation, increasing arable land by 30%
What will new farming techniques do?
Severely restrict land used by nomadic farmers in the Nile delta
What is a major advatage with irrigation farming?
High value crops, like citrus fruits and olives can be grown.
What is the Egyptian irrigation farming project called?
Toshka project - transferring water from lake Nasser in the Western desert.
What is a major problem with irrigation farming?
Water availability is dropping 1000m^3 per year to 490m^3 in 20 years.
What are some other problems?
- Water could be contaminated
- New farmland is too salty
- Pipes could corrode
What is the major benefit of using the Sahara desert for solar panels?
- 12 hours of uninterrupted sunlight
- Large areas for solar panels
How many homes does Tunisia power in western Europe?
2 million homes
Why is using solar panels risky in the desert?
The panels need to be cooled with water and dust can cause them to break.
How can 1g of dust affect solar panels?
Reduces efficiency by 40%
Why are power lines a problem?
They need to travel long distances, costing lots of money and looking ugly.
What mineral makes up lots of Algeria's exports?
What rare element is found in Niger?
What is the big issue with mineral extraction?
Access. Workers have to travel in by plane or train. Material is transported on railways.
Why is water needed in mines?
- Clean water for workers
- Water to hydraulically extract
- Water can be contaminated too
Why would environmental groups oppose mines?
They destroy rare species habitats.