'Nearsighted' behavior displayed under the influence of alcohol: local and immediate cues become prominent, and remote cues and consequences are ignored.
Drug that reduces anxiety; examples are minor tranquillizers such as benzodiazepines and sedative-hypnotic agents.
monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor
Antidepressant drug that blocks the enzyme monoamine oxidase from degrading neurotransmitters such as dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin.
Reduction of response to a novel drug because of tolerance developed in response to a chemically related drug.
When a drug is associated with certain cues, the cues themselves elicit desire for the drug; also called incentive-sensitization theory.
Physical and psychological behavior displayed by an addict when drug use ends.
Chemical messenger synthesized by cellular DNA that acts to affect the target cell's physiology.
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Developmental disorder characterized by core behavioral symptoms of impulsivity, hyperactivity, and/or inattention.
Drug that produces sedation and sleep.
Drug such as nalorphine and naloxone that acts quickly to block the actions of opioids by competing with them for binding sites; used to treat opioid addiction.
Drug for treatment of bipolar disorder that mutes the intensity of one pole of the disorder, thus making the other pole less likely to recur.
Substance that blocks the function of a synapse.
Peptide hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter and may be associated with feelings of pain or pleasure; mimicked by opioid drugs such as morphine, heroin, opium, and codeine.
Sex hormone secreted by the testes and responsible for the distinguishing characteristics of the male.
Explanation holding that alcohol has a selective depressant effect on the cortex, the region of the brain that controls judgment, while sparing subcortical structures responsible for more primitive instincts, such as desire.
Mood disorder characterized by periods of depression alternating with normal periods and periods of intense excitation, or mania.
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)
Range of physical and intellectual impairments observed in some children born to alcoholic mothers.
Substance that acts to alter mood, thought, or behavior; is used to manage neuropsychological illness; or is abused.
dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia
Idea that excess activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine causes symptoms of schizophrenia.
Drug like morphine, with sleep-inducing (narcotic) and pain-relieving (analgesic) properties; originally narcotic analgesic.
Desire for a drug manifested by frequent use of the drug, leading to the development of physical dependence in addition to abuse; often associated with tolerance and unpleasant, sometimes dangerous, withdrawal symptoms on cessation of drug use. Also called substance dependence.
Drug whose action is similar to that of tricyclics (first-generation antidepressants) but more selective in its action on the serotonin reuptake transporter proteins; also called atypical antidepressant.
Use of a drug for the psychological and behavioral changes it produces aside from its therapeutic effects.
Substance that enhances the function of a synapse.
One of a group of steroid hormones, such as cortisol, secreted in times of stress; important in protein and carbohydrate metabolism.
Mood disorder characterized by prolonged feelings of worthlessness and guilt, the disruption of normal eating habits, sleep disturbances, a general slowing of behavior, and frequent thoughts of suicide.
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)
Tricyclic antidepressant drug that blocks the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic terminal.
Belongs to a class of synthetic hormones related to testosterone that have both muscle-building (anabolic) and masculinizing (androgenic) effects; also called anabolic-androgenic steroid.
Increased behavioral and cognitive activity; at certain levels of consumption, the drug user feels energetic and in control.
gonadal (sex) hormone
One of a group of hormones, such as testosterone, that control reproductive functions and bestow sexual appearance and identity as male or female.
First-generation antidepressant drug with a chemical structure characterized by three rings that blocks serotonin reuptake transporter proteins.
Decrease in response to a drug with the passage of time.
Drug that can alter sensation and perception; examples are lysergic acid dielthylmide, mescaline, and psilocybin.
Drug that releases the neurotransmitter dopamine into its synapse and, like cocaine, blocks dopamine reuptake.
One of a group of hormones that maintain internal metabolic balance and regulate physiological systems in an organism.
Study of how drugs affect the nervous system and behavior.
Proposal that actions of hormones in development alter tissue differentiation; for example, testosterone masculinizes the brain.
Fat-soluble chemical messenger synthesized from cholesterol.