How do drugs and hormones influence the brain and behavior? Flashcards Preview

Physiological Psychology > How do drugs and hormones influence the brain and behavior? > Flashcards

Flashcards in How do drugs and hormones influence the brain and behavior? Deck (38):
1

alcohol myopia

'Nearsighted' behavior displayed under the influence of alcohol: local and immediate cues become prominent, and remote cues and consequences are ignored.

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antianxiety agent

Drug that reduces anxiety; examples are minor tranquillizers such as benzodiazepines and sedative-hypnotic agents.

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monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor

Antidepressant drug that blocks the enzyme monoamine oxidase from degrading neurotransmitters such as dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin.

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cross-tolerance

Reduction of response to a novel drug because of tolerance developed in response to a chemically related drug.

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wanting-and-liking theory

When a drug is associated with certain cues, the cues themselves elicit desire for the drug; also called incentive-sensitization theory.

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withdrawal symptom

Physical and psychological behavior displayed by an addict when drug use ends.

5

peptide hormone

Chemical messenger synthesized by cellular DNA that acts to affect the target cell's physiology.

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attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Developmental disorder characterized by core behavioral symptoms of impulsivity, hyperactivity, and/or inattention.

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barbiturate

Drug that produces sedation and sleep.

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competitive inhibitor

Drug such as nalorphine and naloxone that acts quickly to block the actions of opioids by competing with them for binding sites; used to treat opioid addiction.

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mood stabilizer

Drug for treatment of bipolar disorder that mutes the intensity of one pole of the disorder, thus making the other pole less likely to recur.

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antagonist

Substance that blocks the function of a synapse.

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endorphin

Peptide hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter and may be associated with feelings of pain or pleasure; mimicked by opioid drugs such as morphine, heroin, opium, and codeine.

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testosterone

Sex hormone secreted by the testes and responsible for the distinguishing characteristics of the male.

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disinhibition theory

Explanation holding that alcohol has a selective depressant effect on the cortex, the region of the brain that controls judgment, while sparing subcortical structures responsible for more primitive instincts, such as desire.

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bipolar disorder

Mood disorder characterized by periods of depression alternating with normal periods and periods of intense excitation, or mania.

14

fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)

Range of physical and intellectual impairments observed in some children born to alcoholic mothers.

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psychoactive drug

Substance that acts to alter mood, thought, or behavior; is used to manage neuropsychological illness; or is abused.

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dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia

Idea that excess activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine causes symptoms of schizophrenia.

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opioid analgesic

Drug like morphine, with sleep-inducing (narcotic) and pain-relieving (analgesic) properties; originally narcotic analgesic.

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addiction

Desire for a drug manifested by frequent use of the drug, leading to the development of physical dependence in addition to abuse; often associated with tolerance and unpleasant, sometimes dangerous, withdrawal symptoms on cessation of drug use. Also called substance dependence.

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second-generation antidepressant

Drug whose action is similar to that of tricyclics (first-generation antidepressants) but more selective in its action on the serotonin reuptake transporter proteins; also called atypical antidepressant.

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substance abuse

Use of a drug for the psychological and behavioral changes it produces aside from its therapeutic effects.

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agonist

Substance that enhances the function of a synapse.

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glucocorticoid

One of a group of steroid hormones, such as cortisol, secreted in times of stress; important in protein and carbohydrate metabolism.

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major depression

Mood disorder characterized by prolonged feelings of worthlessness and guilt, the disruption of normal eating habits, sleep disturbances, a general slowing of behavior, and frequent thoughts of suicide.

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selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

Tricyclic antidepressant drug that blocks the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic terminal.

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anabolic steroid

Belongs to a class of synthetic hormones related to testosterone that have both muscle-building (anabolic) and masculinizing (androgenic) effects; also called anabolic-androgenic steroid.

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psychomotor activation

Increased behavioral and cognitive activity; at certain levels of consumption, the drug user feels energetic and in control.

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gonadal (sex) hormone

One of a group of hormones, such as testosterone, that control reproductive functions and bestow sexual appearance and identity as male or female.

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tricyclic antidepressant

First-generation antidepressant drug with a chemical structure characterized by three rings that blocks serotonin reuptake transporter proteins.

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tolerance

Decrease in response to a drug with the passage of time.

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psychedelic drug

Drug that can alter sensation and perception; examples are lysergic acid dielthylmide, mescaline, and psilocybin.

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amphetamine

Drug that releases the neurotransmitter dopamine into its synapse and, like cocaine, blocks dopamine reuptake.

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homeostatic hormone

One of a group of hormones that maintain internal metabolic balance and regulate physiological systems in an organism.

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psychopharmacology

Study of how drugs affect the nervous system and behavior.

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organizational hypothesis

Proposal that actions of hormones in development alter tissue differentiation; for example, testosterone masculinizes the brain.

38

steroid hormone

Fat-soluble chemical messenger synthesized from cholesterol.