Neural route formed by axons of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus; allows light to entrain the rhythmic activity of the SCN.
Region at the center of the retina that is specialized for high acuity; its receptive fields are at the center of the eye's visual field.
Specialized type of retinal cell that transduces light into neural activity
Explanation of color vision that emphasizes the importance of the apparently opposing pairs of colors: red versus green and blue versus yellow.
Change in sound heard as a person moves past a sound source or as a sound source moves past a person.
Region of the retina where axons forming the optic nerve leave the eye and where blood vessels enter and leave; has no photoreceptors and is thus 'blind.'
magnocellular (M) cell
Large-celled visual-system neuron that is sensitive to moving stimuli.
extrastriate (secondary visual) cortex
Visual cortical areas outside the striate cortex.
Phenomenon whereby the perceived color of an object tends to remain constant relative to other colors, regardless of changes in illumination.
primary visual cortex (V1)
Striate cortex that receives input from the lateral geniculate nucleus.
Explanation of color vision based on the coding of three primary colors: red, green, and blue.
Junction of the optic nerves, one from each eye, at which the axons from the nasal (inside - nearer the nose) halves of the retinas cross to the opposite side of the brain.
Light-sensitive surface at the back of the eye consisting of neurons and photoreceptor cells.
Inability to recognize objects or drawings of objects.
Small blind spot in the visual field caused by migraine or by a small lesion of the visual cortex.
The amount of light reflected by an object relative to its surroundings.
Region of the visual world that stimulates a receptor cell or neuron.
retinal ganglion cell (RGC)
One of a group of retinal neurons with axons that give rise to the optic nerve.
Registration of physical stimuli from the environment by the sensory organs.
Projections from the retina to the superior colliculus to the pulvinar (thalamus) to the parietal and temporal visual areas.
Photoreceptor specialized for color and high visual acuity.
Deficit in the visual control of reaching and other movements.
Blindness of an entire left or right visual field.
Blindness of one quadrant of the visual field.
Photoreceptor specialized for functioning at low light levels.
Face blindness - the inability to recognize faces; also called prosopagnosia.
Projections from the retina to the lateral geniculate nucleus to the visual cortex.
Functional column in the visual cortex maximally responsive to information coming from one eye.
Spatially organized neural representation of the external world.
Primary visual cortex (V1) in the occipital lobe; its striped appearance when stained gives it this name.
parvocellular (P) cell
Small-celled visual-system neuron that is sensitive to form and color differences.
Region in the visual cortex that contains color-sensitive neurons, as revealed by staining for cytochrome oxidase.
Region of the visual world that is seen by the eyes.
Streaming of visual stimuli that accompanies an observer's forward movement through space.
Cortical organization that represents a functional unit six cortical layers deep and approximately 0.5 millimeter square and that is perpendicular to the cortical surface.
Subjective interpretation of sensations by the brain.