How do we study the brain's structure and functions? Flashcards Preview

Physiological Psychology > How do we study the brain's structure and functions? > Flashcards

Flashcards in How do we study the brain's structure and functions? Deck (23):
1

computerized tomography (CT)

X-ray technique that produces a static, three-dimensional image of the brain in cross section - a CT scan.

2

akinesia

Slowness or absence of movement.

2

diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)

Magnetic resonance imaging method that, by detecting the directional movements of water molecules, can image fiber pathways in the brain.

2

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

Procedure in which a magnetic coil is placed over the skull to stimulate the underlying brain; used either to induce behavior or to disrupt ongoing behavior.

3

event-related potentials (ERPs)

Complex electroencephalographic waveforms related in time to a specific sensory event.

5

behavioral neuroscience

Study of the biological bases of behavior.

6

place cells

Neurons maximally responsive to specific locations in the world.

7

optogenetics

Transgenic technique that combines genetics and light to control targeted cells in living tissue.

7

resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI)

Magnetic resonance imaging method that measures changes in elements such as iron or oxygen when the individual is resting (not engaged in a specific task).

8

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Technique that produces a static, three-dimensional brain image by passing a strong magnetic field through the brain, followed by a radio wave, then measuring the radiation emitted from hydrogen atoms.

9

electrocorticography (ECoG)

Graded potentials recorded with electrodes placed directly on the brain's surface.

9

positron emission tomography (PET)

Imaging technique that detects changes in blood flow by measuring changes in the uptake of compounds such as oxygen or glucose; used to analyze the metabolic activity of neurons.

11

functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)

Noninvasive technique that gathers light transmitted through cortical tissue to image blood-oxygen consumption; form of optical tomography.

12

stereotaxic apparatus

Surgical instrument that permits the researcher to target a specific part of the brain.

14

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Magnetic resonance imaging in which changes in elements such as iron or oxygen are measured during the performance of a specific behavior; used to measure cerebral blood flow during behavior or resting.

15

microdialysis

Technique used to determine the chemical constituents of extracellular fluid.

16

magnetoencephalogram (MEG)

Magnetic potentials recorded from detectors placed outside the skull.

18

alpha rhythm

Regular wave pattern in an electroencephalogram; found in most people when they are relaxed with closed eyes.

19

deep-brain stimulation (DBS)

Neurosurgery in which electrodes implanted in the brain stimulate a targeted area with a low-voltage electrical current to facilitate behavior.

20

neuropsychology

Study of the relations between brain function and behavior.

21

magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)

Magnetic resonance imaging method that uses the hydrogen proton signal to determine the concentration of brain metabolites

22

cerebral voltammetry

Technique used to identify the concentration of specific chemicals in the brain as animals behave freely.

23

striatum

Caudate nucleus and putamen of the basal ganglia.