How does the nervous system respond to stimulation and produce movement? Flashcards Preview

Physiological Psychology > How does the nervous system respond to stimulation and produce movement? > Flashcards

Flashcards in How does the nervous system respond to stimulation and produce movement? Deck (31):
1

monosynaptic reflex

Reflex requiring one synapse between sensory input and movement.

2

glabrous skin

Skin that does not have hair follicles but contains larger numbers of sensory receptors than do other skin areas.

4

Ménière's disease

Disorder of the middle ear resulting in vertigo and loss of balance.

4

neuroprosthetics

Field that develops computer-assisted devices to replace lost biological function.

4

referred pain

Pain felt on the surface of the body that is actually due to pain in one of the internal organs of the body.

5

hyperkinetic symptom

Symptom of brain damage that results in excessive involuntary movements, as seen in Tourette's syndrome.

6

paraplegia

Paralysis of the legs due to spinal-cord injury.

7

restraint-induced therapy

Procedure in which restraint of a healthy limb forces a patient to use an impaired limb to enhance recovery of function.

8

cerebral palsy

Group of brain disorders that result from brain damage acquired perinatally (at or near birth).

8

mirror neuron

Cell in the primate premotor cortex that fires when an individual observes a specific action taken by another individual.

8

vestibular system

Somatosensory system that comprises a set of receptors in each inner ear that respond to body position and to movement of the head

9

ventrolateral thalamus

Part of the thalamus that carries information about body senses to the somatosensory cortex.

10

corticospinal tract

Bundle of nerve fibers directly connecting the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord, branching at the brainstem into an opposite-side lateral tract that informs movement of limbs and digits and a same-side ventral tract that informs movement of the trunk; also called pyramidal tract.

11

dorsal spinothalamic tract

Pathway that carries fine-touch and pressure fibers.

12

motor sequence

Movement modules preprogrammed by the brain and produced as a unit.

13

scratch reflex

Automatic response in which an animal's hind limb reaches to remove a stimulus from the surface of the body.

14

rapidly adapting receptor

Body sensory receptor that responds briefly to the onset of a stimulus on the body.

15

slowly adapting receptor

Body sensory receptor that responds as long as a sensory stimulus is on the body.

16

periaqueductal gray matter (PAG)

Nuclei in the midbrain that surround the cerebral aqueduct joining the third and fourth ventricles; PAG neurons contain circuits for species-typical behaviors (e.g., female sexual behavior) and play an important role in the modulation of pain.

17

ventral spinothalamic tract

Pathway from the spinal cord to the thalamus that carries information about pain and temperature.

19

hypokinetic symptom

Symptom of brain damage that results in a paucity of movement, as seen in Parkinson's disease.

20

apraxia

Inability to make voluntary movements in the absence of paralysis or other motor or sensory impairment, especially an inability to make proper use of an object.

21

locked-in syndrome

Condition in which a patient is aware and awake but cannot move or communicate verbally due to complete paralysis of nearly all voluntary muscles except the eyes.

22

topographic organization

Neural spatial representation of the body or areas of the sensory world perceived by a sensory organ.

24

deafferentation

Loss of incoming sensory input usually due to damage to sensory fibers; also loss of any afferent input to a structure.

25

proprioception

Perception of the position and movement of the body, limbs, and head.

26

hapsis

Perceptual ability to discriminate objects on the basis of touch.

28

homunculus

Representation of the human body in the sensory or motor cortex; also any topographical representation of the body by a neural area.

29

nocioception

Perception of pain, temperature, and itch.

30

quadriplegia

Paralysis of the legs and arms due to spinal-cord injury.

31

pain gate

Hypothetical neural circuit in which activity in fine-touch and pressure pathways diminishes the activity in pain and temperature pathways.