How far was Stalin a 'Red Tsar'? Flashcards Preview

Russian Rulers - Nature of Government > How far was Stalin a 'Red Tsar'? > Flashcards

Flashcards in How far was Stalin a 'Red Tsar'? Deck (12):
1

Autocracy:

Rule by a ____ ____, who makes ____ decisions and has power of ____ and ____ over his subjects. He was given ____ status.

Stalinism:

Stalin was ____ ____ of the Soviet Union, with power to sign ____ warrants. He was portrayed as a ____-____ figure in the cult of personality.

Autocracy:

Rule by a supreme leader, who makes major decisions and has power of life and death over his subjects. He was given divine status.

Stalinism:

Stalin was supreme leader of the Soviet Union, with power to sign death warrants. He was portrayed as a god-like figure in the cult of personality.

2

Autocracy:

The tsar was supported by an ____  - the nobility whose prime role was to ____ the tsar. Their positions of influence in the ____, ____ ____, and ____ ____ were held through ____ of the tsar.

Stalinism:

Stalin was supported by the ____ - an elite who held the top positions in the ____, ____, ____ ____ etc., through the ____ of Stalin.

Slight difference:

He kept their support by threats of removing ____ - access to ____ goods, best ____, etc.

Autocracy:

The tsar was supported by an elite - the nobility whose prime role was to serve the tsar. Their positions of influence in the government, armed forces and civil service were held through patronage of the tsar.

Stalinism:

Stalin was supported by the nomenklatura- an elite who held the top positions in the party, government, armed forces etc., through the patronage of Stalin.

Slight difference:

He kept their support by threats of removing privilege - access to scarce goods, best apartements, etc.

3

Autocracy:

There was a huge government bureaucracy, ____, ____, and ____, with ____ at lower levels.

Stalinism:

There was a huge, ____ bureaucracy in government and ____ which led to 'death by paper'

____ at local areas '____ ____' - by ____ officials and ____ managers.

Judgement:

  • Even more ____

Autocracy:

There was a huge government bureaucracy, slow, unwieldy, and impenetrable, with corruption at lower levels.

Stalinism:

There was a huge, faceless bureaucracy in government and partywhich led to 'death by paper'

Corruption at local areas 'inner circles' - by party officials and industrial managers.

Judgement:

  • Even more expansive

4

Autocracy:

There was a well-developed system of ____ and ____.

Stalinism:

From ____ a system of rank adn privilege developed with ____ on top.

The ____ economy demanded there be officials and managers at ____ ___ and ____ ____ between workers.

Autocracy:

There was a well-developed system of rank and privilege.

Stalinism:

From 1903s a system of rank and privilege developed with nomeklatura on top.

The command economy demanded there be officials and managers at different levels and wage differentials between workers.

5

Autocracy:

Utilised the secret police - ____ - to support ____ and deal with ____ and ____.

Stalinism:

____ use of secret police - ____ then ____ - in ____ apsects of Soviet life - ____, ____, ____ spheres and in the ____ - and at ____ levels. Performed a ____ role, with power to root out ____ to party leadership.

Autocracy:

Utilised the secret police - Okhrana - to support state and deal with critics and opposition.

Stalinism:

Extensive use of secret police - OGPU then NKVD - in all apsects of Soviet life - party, governmental, economic spheres and in the Gulags - and at all levels. Performed a monitoring role, with power to root out opposition to party leadership.

6

Both tsars and communists used:

  • Internal ____
  • ____ permits
  • ____

To contol the ____ of the population.

Both tsars and communists used:

  • Internal passports
  • Residence permits
  • Visas

To contol the movements of the population.

7

Autocracy:

There was a lack of free speech - ____ of the press and banning of ____ ____ (except between ____ and ____)

Stalinism

There was an even ____ lack of free speech - ____ of the press and banning of ____ ____ ____

Autocracy:

There was a lack of free speech - censorship of the press and banning of political parties (except between 1906 and 1914)

Stalinism

There was an even greater lack of free speech - censorship of the press and banning of rival political

8

Autocracy:

There was no tradition of ____ political institutions except the ____ and ____)

Stalinism:

There was no genuinly ____ institutions although ____ were designed to be a purer form of ____ participation.

Autocracy:

There was no tradition of democratic political institutions except the Duma and Zemstva)

Stalinism:

There was no genuinly democratic institutions although soviets were designed to be a purer form of democratic participation.

9

Tsarist Orthodoxy:

Tsar's power ____ by Russian Orthodox Church. Russians saw their Orthodox beliefs as ____. believed it was their mission to ____ their beliefs ____. Believed they were upholders of the '____' Christian faith.

Stalinism:

Stalinism was ____ by Marxism-Leninism, which Stalin used to ____ his actions. IT was treated as a quasi-____. Soviets believed they has a mission to ____ Communism through ____ ____. Important that Soviet model ____ - dislike of _____.

Tsarist Orthodoxy:

Tsar's power underpinned by Russian Orthodox Church. Russians saw their Orthodox beliefs as speciial. believed it was their mission to spread their beliefs abroad. Believed they were upholders of the 'true' Christian faith.

Stalinism:

Stalinism was underpinned by Marxism-Leninism, which Stalin used to justify his actions. IT was treated as a quasi-religion. Soviets believed they has a mission to spread Communism through World Revolution. Important that Soviet model followed - dislike of Yugoslavia.

10

Autocracy:

Strong emphasis on nationalism - ____ wanted to export to other parts of ____ e.g. ____. Desire to expand ____ and be a major ____ power.

Stalinism:

Emaphsised nationalism with 'Socialism in ____ ____' - Russians did not need ____ help. Also appealed to nationalism and patriotism in ____ ____ ____, denounced opposition as ____.

Keen on Russian ____ of other republics' ____ and ____, although some concessions made to develop their own national ____.

Stalin's foreign policy was very nationalistic - WW2 ____ so that gained __ million people into empire, USSR became a ____.

Autocracy:

Strong emphasis on nationalism - Slavophiles wanted to export to other parts of empire e.g. Russification. Desire to expand empire and be a major European power.

Stalinism:

Emaphsised nationalism with 'Socialism in One Country' - Russians did not need outside help. Also appealed to nationalism and patriotism in Five Year Plans, denounced opposition as traitors.

Keen on Russian domination of other republics' parties and governments, although some concessions made to develop their own national traditions.

Stalin's foreign policy was very nationalistic - WW2 expansion so that gained 21 million people into empire, USSR became a superpower.

11

Autocracy:

Economic change led from ____. The middle-classes were ____, so state had been main agent in promoting ____ growth and development of the ____. The state had borrowed money from ____ and squeezed resources from the ____ to do so.

Stalinism:

In ____, Stalin mounted 'revolution from ____'. ____ change on peasantry and rapidly industrialised through the _____ economy.

Extracted resources from ____.

Differences:

Aimed for economic ____, so little money from ____.

Also extracted resources from the ____ ____.

Autocracy:

Economic change led from above. The middle-classes were weak, so state had been main agent in promoting industrial growth and development of the railways. The state had borrowed money from abroad and squeezed resources from the peasantry to do so.

Stalinism:

In 1928, Stalin mounted 'revolution from above'. Enforced change on peasantry and rapidly industrialised through the command economy.

Extracted resources from peasants.

Differences:

Aimed for economic autarky, so little money from abroad.

Also extracted resources from the industrial proletariat.

12

Overall therefore, Stalin was a more effective ____ than the actual tsars. 

Expanded ____, properly ____, through ____ gained more control of population.

Overall therefore, Stalin was a more effective ____ than the actual tsars. 

Expanded empire, properly industrialised, through repression gained more control of population.