HPHD 3 - Child development + communication, Motivational Interviewing, Pain, Bad News Flashcards Preview

ESA3 > HPHD 3 - Child development + communication, Motivational Interviewing, Pain, Bad News > Flashcards

Flashcards in HPHD 3 - Child development + communication, Motivational Interviewing, Pain, Bad News Deck (36):
1

At what age can infants distinguish strangers from non-strangers?

~ 3 months

2

At what age do children form specific attachments, and miss key people?

~ 7/8 months

3

What is the critical period requiring secure attachment with a carer, for a child's normal development?

During the first year

4

What are the 3 phases of behaviour shown by hospitalised children?

1) Protest ~ hrs/days: distressed, look for carer
2) Despair: helplessness, withdrawn, cry intermittently
3) Detachment: Interested in surroundings, sociable, remote and pathetic when carer returns

5

What are the effects of separation from main carer on a child?

Behavioural: Anxiety, aggression, clingy, bed wetting, detachment
Physical: Depressed, slower, less play, less sleep, changes in HR and body temp

6

Why does hospitalisation of children aged 6 months to 3 yrs have more adverse effects than at other ages?

- Child cannot keep image of carer in mind
- Limited language
- Cannot understand abstract concepts
- Perceived abandonment due to own failure (punishment)

7

What can be done to reduce stress in a hospitalised child?

- Allow carers access
- Allow attachment objects
- Reassurance
- Make setting homely
- Toys/activities
- High quality substitute care
- Continuity of staff

8

What are Piaget's 4 stages of childhood cognitive development?

0-2 yrs = Sensori-motor
2-7 yrs = Pre-operational
7-12 yrs = Concrete operational
12+ yrs = Formal operational

9

At what age do children understand permanence - ie objects exist when out of sight?

~ 8 months

10

At which stage of development (Piaget's) do children develop language, imagination and symbolic thought?

2-7 yrs = Pre-operational

11

At which stage of development (Piaget's) do children begin to see from others perspectives?

7-12 yrs = Concrete operational

12

At which stage of development (Piaget's) do children develop abstract logic?

12+ yrs = Formal operational

13

What does 'young children lack theory of mind' mean?

Young children think others know how they feel

14

What is Vygotsky's theory of social development?

Cognitive development requires social interaction. Carers should focus on the zone of proximal development, teaching children skills they can do with assistance (rather than skills they can do themselves, or skills they cannot do at all)

15

Define motivational interviewing:

Collaborative, person-centred form of guiding, to elicit and strengthen motivation for change

16

At what point of the stages of change model is motivational interviewing most effective?

Contemplation

17

Define pain:

Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage

18

What is the biomedical model of pain?

Pain is solely caused by physical damage

19

Give some examples of pain which challenge the biomedical model of pain:

- Mental pain
- Phantom limb pain
- Placebo effect

20

What is the main function of acute pain?

- Attracts attention
- Warns of damage

21

Define chronic pain:

Pain experienced for > 3 months without ongoing tissue damage, which doesn't go away with prolonged rest + medication

22

Outline the gate control theory of pain:

- Synaptic gate between peripheral nerves and neurons in spinal cord
- Gate is open or closed by physical or psychological factors

23

List some factors which tend to 'open' the pain gate:

- Physical injury
- Inactivity/poor fitness
- Poor sleep
- Anxiety
- Depression
- Stress/distress
- Focusing on pain
- Wishing it would go away

24

List some factors which tend to 'close' the pain gate:

- Medication
- Heat/cold
- Massage
- Exercise
- Relaxation/meditation
- Laughter/humour
- Love/pleasure/happiness
- Distraction

25

Define nociception:

The ability to feel pain
- the stimulation of peripheral pain receptors which send impulses to CNS

26

Define pain threshold:
How much does this vary between people?

The point at which a stimulus becomes painful.
Similar in most people

27

Define pain tolerance:
How much can this vary?

The degree to which a painful stimulus can be tolerated
Varies widely (individuals/cultures/contexts)

28

How does humour affect someones pain tolerance?

It increases their tolerance

29

How does anxiety affect someones pain tolerance?

It reduces their tolerance

30

How does fear affect someones pain tolerance?

It increases their tolerance

31

How do pain management programmes successfully help a patient manage their pain?

- Improve fitness
- Develop coping strategies
- Set goals to work towards
- Teach to accept pain

32

What are the 5 stages of grief?

1) Denial
2) Anger
3) Bargaining
4) Depression
5) Acceptance

33

What percentage of people have readjusted within 2 yrs after experiencing grief?

85%

34

What factors may cause someone to experience grief for a prolonged time?

- Prior bereavements
- Mental health issues
- Type of loss: young, caring status
- Lack of social support
- Discouraged expression of grief
- Discouraged ending of grief

35

Name the model used for breaking bad news:

SPIKES model

36

Explain the SPIKES model:

S- Setting + listening Skills
P- Patients Perception
I- Invitation from patient to give Information
K- Knowledge
E- Empathy
S- Strategy + Summary