Flashcards in HUEC MGT - Exam #2 (Part 2) Deck (94)
What is the Employment Process?
1. Determining staffing needs
2. Recruiting candidates
3. Screening candidates
4. Interviewing candidates
5. Making hiring decisions
6. Determining compensation levels
7. Offering employment
What are Human Resources?
PEOPLE who work in an organization;
-Training managers in how to deal with human related issues
What is the role of Human Resources Dept?
-Setting policy and procedures related to employees
What is Staffing?
-Determine personnel needs of a company;
-determination of the type and number of employees needed
What are Staffing Needs based on?
-What work needs to be done
-What skills are required
-Which employees have those skills
-Which employee are most appropriate for the position
Why does managers make staffing decisions?
-Attrition – people voluntarily leaving a company ;
-Growth – company expansion;
-Reductions in Force – layoffs, centralization
What is a Job?
-The work that is to be done;
-Skill set = the skills needed to perform that job
What are the different levels of workers?
What is a Professional?
What is a Supervisor?
What is a Skilled worker?
What is an Unskilled worker?
The Integrated Staffing System is a continuum of…..
-Manpower planning and forecasting
-And back to manpower planning and forecasting
What is Reduction in Force (RIF)?
As a result of:
2. Financial Problems
3. Structure changes
What is a Job Specification?
Requirements for a specific job;
1. Ability to perform under stress
2. Good telephone manners
3. Interpersonal skills
5. Good judgment related to job activities
What is Included in a written Job Specification?
-Education and/or credentials
What is a Job Description?
-Listing of duties related to job or job classification;
-Overview, NOT Specifics;
-May include: “Performs other duties as assigned/needed” ;
-Hiring, firing, training, performance analysis
What is induced in a job description?
-Relation to other jobs
1. Experience desirable but not required;
2. Education and training (Technical, Formal, On-the-job)
What is the purpose of a job description and job specification?
-Legal and contractual
-Human resource planning
-Recruitment and selection
-Training and development
-Job evaluation and performance management
-Organization change and job redesign
What are the tasks listed in the job description of a Clinical Dietician?
-Plan, direct, provide, nutritional care
-Skilled nursing patients
What are the essential job functions of a clinical dietician?
-Develop/implement plan of care
-Correlated w/other members of the Health Care Team
-Evaluate nutritional care
-Provide follow-up continuity of care
-Communicate recommendations thru electronic system
-Assist planning normal & special diet menus
-Compile/develop educational materials
-Provide nutritional orientation/in-service education
What are the education/experience requirements for an RD?
-BS or advanced degree
-Completed approved internship
-Licensed in State of Louisiana
-Prefer at least 2 years as clinical dietitian
-Counseling/educational experience desirable
What are the skills of an RD?
-Occasionally work nights to teach classes
-Food service equipment
-Lifting 10 lb or less
What is a Job Analysis?
-DETAILED description of daily duties
-Very useful in training
-Not required for all positions
-Based on importance of tasks, not on employment position
-Often includes time frames for each activity
-Related to deadlines that must be met
What is an Incumbent?
-the person who currently holds the position
-Valuable resource for manager
-Employee input required for successful management → Changes in job description
Why is flexibility in staffing needed?
Flexibility in Staffing =
-Accommodating qualified candidates
What is Succession Planning?
-Strategy that ANTICIPATES what jobs will open and prepares others to move into these positions;
What are development of staffing or of an employee?
1. Finding the BASIC TOOLS;
2. Earning TRUST and RESPECT;
3. Matching the “A’s”
4. Gaining CONFIDENCE;
What is Recruitment?
-The process of finding qualified applicants for open positions in an organization
-Occurs once staffing needs have been set
-May be by word of mouth, or by other more formal approaches
-Can be done by the organization itself or through an advertisement or staffing/recruitment agency
What is Advertisement?
A job recruitment method in which the organization has complete control over the content, placement, and time frame
What is an INTERNALLY ADVERTISED job?
-On a company bulletin board or intranet (managed solely by HR);
-Some, if not most companies will advertise a position internally for a set period to promote upward mobility and retention = KEEP IN HOUSE;
-May be on an employee newsletter or “hot line” (a telephone service that lists employment opportunities) to promote spread of opening by employees to family and friends
-$$$ FREE networking and advertisement $$$
What is Locally/Widespread advertising?
-Done through a paid contractor or periodical
EX: Lamar Advertising, The Advocate, Ammon Staffing, Manpower, The Journal of Academy of Dietetics;
-Position type dictates the method of advertising to most efficiently reach the best pool of prospective candidates
— Professionals through recruiters = need higher quality return of interest
— Staff through newspapers = More flexibility with staffing requirements/options
What is Widespread Advertising?
Can be done through:
1. Bulletin boards
2. Grocery stores
4. Community centers
5. Public employment centers
6. Many other public places
- NOT as selective and controllable by the company as the space may be limited
- So may not be able to call it “advertising”
What is Networking?
-Most simply defined as “talking” to another in a related or same professional field;
-Dietitian/nutrition professionals find jobs through;
-Open forums = Job fairs, career expos
What is Word-Of-Mouth?
informal method of info exchange that relies on verbal communication between individuals
o “Who you know, not what you know”
What are Recruitment Agencies?
-Specialize in matching candidates to available jobs, commonly called “headhunters”
-Specialize in certain profession/ field
-Paid on percentage basis of hired employees salary or flat fee on a per-position-filled basis
-Can also be employed exclusively by a particular company
What are Hiring Incentives?
-Rewards or bonuses that are given to job candidates to entice them to accept a position;
-Often used when candidate pool is SCARCE
(When there are a lot of people looking for jobs do NOT need to add extras to entice people to want to join the company)
Examples of Hiring Incentives
-Relocation packages, enhanced benefits packages
-Company cars, expense accounts
How does use of incentive packages change with the job market?
-Use of packages usually changes as job market fluctuates =
-↑Job Market : ↓Job Seekers : ↑Incentives
-↓Job Market : ↑Job Seekers : ↓Incentives
What are Signing Bonuses?
– One lump sum when HIRED
— Paid in part or in full;
- When the employee has been in the position for a set period of time
EX: $2500 at signing and $2500 after 1 year
EX: $10,000 for a returning intern at signing
-Often used when job seekers are SCARCE and the economy is STRONG;
-Makes positions more attractive
What are Finders/Referral Fees?
– an incentive for an employee of a company who finds or refers a qualified candidate outside the company for an open position who is then hired and/or in the new position for a set period of time
When does interviewing take place?
-Once screening is complete, the interview occurs
-Can be conducted by hiring manager alone
-Also by a committee or group
-Higher level position interview may be conducted by committee or department heads
-Interviews conducted by both should maintain a high level of consistency
-Much like scientific experiment
-Determines best fit for an opening
What is a Paper Review?
-After initial advertising of a position, applications and resumes received and reviewed;
-Initial screening of applications to eliminate candidates who do not appear to meet job specifications;
-Conducted by HR department;
How do you decide how many applicants to interview?
-Large Applicant Pool, Few Jobs Available = Further Screening;
-Small Applicant Pool, Large Job Availability = Interview All Applicants
What is the interviewing pattern?
1. Introductions → Outline format
2. Rapport building
4. Closure: plan for follow-up
What is an Unstructured Interview?
– An interview that resembles an informal conversation;
-Not appropriate due to lack of organization;
-Inconsistencies between interviews with various candidates;
-Used by unseasoned managers/interviewers
-Can deter candidate;
-Superficial information → Only real, useful information gained is chemistry of the candidate and interviewer;
-Not useful for comparison;
-Commonplace; can be avoided with training of interviewers
What is a Semi-Structured Interview?
-Takes on a conversational tone but is organized by;
-List of topics to cover;
-Questions to be asked;
-Exact questions not written - left open to adaptation into discussion;
-Some spontaneous conversation;
-Best used by seasoned interviewers;
-Can be as effective as a structured interview, and more comfortable for the candidate
Example of Semi-Structured
→ Interviewer lays out plan for interview after Introductions
Ex. “First, we’ll talk about the job duties of the position you are applying for, then I’ll ask you some questions about yourself and your special talents, and finally, there will be time for you to ask me questions. I expect this discussion to take about 45 minutes.”
What is a Structured Interview?
-Interview schedule- agenda and list of questions to be asked to each candidate;
-Most consistent and objective form of interview;
-Important to build rapport when using structured interviews to reduce stress of candidate;
-Interviewer should explain process;
-Use job description for basis
1. Cook may be asked how to prepare a certain dish
2. Inventory/purchasing manager may be asked about FIFO/LIFO
3. What would you do if….?
What are Group Interviews?
-More than one person interviews the candidate;
-Structure important for consistency
Why is a preliminary meeting needed for group interviews?
-Preliminary meeting between interviewers establish:
2. Who will ask
3. Order - when they will be asked
4. Topics to be avoided
5. Group discussion between interviews
6. One member of the group often designated as the “Note Taker”
When can notes be taken in an interview?
-During or between interviews
-Capture salient points
-Should not be disruptive
-May be recorded; inform candidate
-One person in a group
-Common courtesy to inform candidate
What are Civil Service Examinations?
Highly structured group interview for government positions
Who are Search Committees used to recruit?
Who does the US Dept of Labor: Equal Employment Opportunity apply to?
-Ethnic/National Origin, Color, Race, Religion & Sex Discrimination
What Pre-Employment Inquiries are recommended?
What Pre-Employment Inquiries are NOT recommended?
What should be included in the closing of the interview?
-What should candidate expect next
-Hiring decision date (decision made need another interview)
-When candidate will be notified;
-Keeps everyone credible in the other’s eyes as to not burn bridges for future meetings
What should the content of the interview be based on?
Content should stick to the position being interviewed for
What can deviation from discussion of the job lead to?
-Meeting off track
What are inappropriate topics of discussion?
-Age, Sexual Orientation, Family, Ethnicity, Marital Status;
-can be openings for legal issues and discrimination;
-seems innocent at the time, just simple conversation, but can come back on the company
What should open discussion of the position be about?
-Open discussion should be about the position
-Expansion on duties expected from the candidate
-Discussion on salary ranges with the candidate
What types of references should always be checked?
What is Equal Opportunity or Affirmative Action?
*Making sure the candidates normally underrepresented are hired!
-Candidates judged on ability to do job
-Programs vary by state
-Good business practice to reflect community
-Govern the hiring process
-Can complicate the process of hiring
What is the Hiring Decision?
-The selection of the best candidate
-Made by the hiring manager or group
-Weighs best candidate against alternatives (Decision Making)
What should be done BEFORE making a Hiring Decision?
-Diversity of the Company
-Prospective Start Date
-Benefits (may require negotiation)
-Physical Exam (drug test)
Why are references checked?
*References checked to verify information from interview and resume
-Prior employers are contacted
-So are listed references
-Is candidate is really capable/experienced to fill position?
What determines compensation?
*Compensation may be within a range or advertised amount
-Frequently determined by current salary level of candidate to attract away from a position
-Takes into account salary of piers within company
-Total package is used combining salary, benefits, and perks
Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action ELIMINATE discrimination based on….
-Just about anything else
-Focus on candidate’s ability to do the required duties effectively
What is the OFFER?
-The final step in employment process
-Made by hiring manager or the HR department
-Goal= candidate to accept offer
-Done In person or by phone
-Benefits should be considered and negotiations can take place
What are possible employee benefits?
-Paid time off- (holidays, vacation, sick time)
-Insurance- (health, life, disability)
-Employee assistance programs
-Perks- (expense accounts, cars, company credit cards, mobile phones)
What is a Cafeteria Package?
– A selection of benefits offered to employees from which they can pick and choose according to their needs
-OLDER worker- comprehensive insurance for entire family, retirement programs
-YOUNG worker- catastrophic illness insurance and health care membership, larger paychecks
-Regional and depends on market
What is Paid Time Off (PTO)?
The amount of time that employees can be absent from work and still have their usual compensation
1. Employer- designated holiday
2. Personal days
4. Sick time
5. Bereavement Leave
6. Jury Duty
What is an Employer Designated Holiday?
*When employees traditionally are paid but do not
- Dependent on the employer
-Usually 5-10 days each year
- Christmas, Thanksgiving, Fourth of July
- May be part of a contractual agreement with a union
What are Personal Days?
-Employers designate only a few holidays and gives employees a set number of personal days each year
-Used whenever the employee wants time off
-Advantageous to both employer and employee
What is Vacation or Sick Time?
-Vacation time- paid time off from work designated for leisure activities or rest
-Sick time- paid time off to be used for illness or injury
*Certain number of days each pay period
What is Bereavement Time?
-Paid time off when there is a death in the family
-If offered, usually two to three days each year
-Not a requirement
What is Jury Duty?
-Mandated by statue in the United States
-Government pays the individual a minimal amount to serve on the jury
-Employer pays the difference between what employee earns as juror and normal pay
-No accrued time is used (sick, vacation, personal)
What are some issues with ACCRUED TIME?
-Organization put a cap on the amount of time an employee may accrue
- “Use it or Lose it”
-Rewards those who do not use excessive time off
-Not punishable for those who use time they accrue
What is “Buy Back”?
the employer pays the employee for accrued time off that was not used
What is Statutory Insurance?
Social Security, Unemployment Insurance, Worker’s Compensation
What is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010?
certain employers offer health insurance to workers and their families
What is Voluntary Insurance?
Life insurance, retirement program, dental insurance;
Employer may ask for contribution toward coverage
What are some other possible employee benefits?
-Registration and travel to meetings
-Subscriptions to journals
-Paid time off for educational activities
-Profit Sharing Programs
What happens after an offer is in place to a candidate?
*Accept or Reject the Offer
-Offer has been made, details negotiated, employee has a reasonable period of time to make a decision
-May consider family and living cost
-Hiring manager may withdraw offer if waiting for a very long time
What should an employer do when there is offer Rejection?
-No benefits to renegotiate with candidate
-Best to make offer with alternate candidate
What happens when an offer is accepted and someone is hired?
-Start date needs to be arranged.
-Notice given to current employer
-Employee process ends
-Employer/ Employee relationship begins
What else should an employer do upon filling a position?
-After position is filled, it is courteous to notify OTHER candidates
-Usually done in writing
— Personal letter- small pool
— Form letter/postcard- large pool
-Good public relations strategy
-Rejected candidates feel better and are more likely to reapply in future
STAFFING should be….
..undertaken in a planned, deliberated manner, whether it involves hiring a single employee or building an organization from the ground up
The jobs to be done should….
...be adequately defined - outlined in job specifications, job descriptions, and sometimes, job analyses
A variety of recruitment tools...
...are available to HR departments and to hiring managers to publicize available jobs
The employment interview...
...should be planned in such a way that candidates can be compared with each other
The hiring decision...
...is made based on the qualifications of the candidates and other factors such as compensation, diversity goals, reference checks, and so on