Human Anatomy - Connective tissues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Human Anatomy - Connective tissues Deck (52):
1

________ tissue is the most diverse and abundant tissue in the human body.

Connective

2

What are the main classes of connective tissue?

CTP
Cartilage
Bone
Blood

3

What are the general functions of connective tissue?

Binding and support
Protection and insulation of internal organs
Compartmentalization
Transportation
Major site of body energy reserves

4

What are key characters of connective tissue?

Few cells
ECM composed of ground substance and fibres.
All connective tissue comes from mesenchyme.

5

What is ground substance?

Unstructured material that fills the space between cells.
Secreted by the connective tissue cell and determines the tissue's qualities (solid, liquid, gel)

6

What do fibres in connective tissue provide?

Support

7

What are the different fibres in connective tissue?

Collagen fibres, elastic fibres, reticular fibres

8

Describe collagen fibres.

Tough and resist pulling forces but remain flexible.

9

Describe elastic fibres

Can stretch up to 150% of relaxed length and return to original shape

10

Where are elastic fibres abundant?

Skin, blood vessels, lungs

11

What are reticular fibres?

Thin, fine collagenous fibres that form delicate branching networks.
Strong but allow more "give" than collagen fibres
present in the basement membrane

12

Draw a key from mesenchyme to the different cells and tissues of the different connective tissues.

Refer to notes. Slide 50

13

What are the two subclasses of CTP?

Loose connective tissue & Dense connective tissue

14

Loose connective tissue is further subdivided into?

Areolar & Adipose (And reticular)

15

Dense connective tissue is further subdivided into?

Dense irregular, dense regular, elastic

16

What is the ground substance of the ECM in CTP?

gel-like

17

Which fibres does areolar connective tissue contain?

All three (reticular, collagen, elastic)

18

What cells are present in areolar connective tissue?

Fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, WBCs

19

What are the functions of areolar connective tissue?

Wrap and cushion organs
Hold and convey tissue fluid
Important role in inflammation/infection

20

Where is areolar connective tissue located?

Under epithelia
Around organs
Surrounding small nerves and blood vessels

21

What is interstitial fluid?

(related to areolar)
Tissue fluid derived from leakage of water and small molecules from the blood as it travels through capillaries.
Allows for nutrients and oxygen to be carried to cells and wastes from cells.
Areolar CT soaks up this tissue fluid.

22

Why is areolar connective tissue considered the main battlefield against infection?

Has immune cells
Prevents penetration of bacteria into the blood
Combination of 3 fibre types serves as a mesh to slow travel of microbes

23

Describe adipose tissue.

Closely packed adipocytes
Nucleus pushed to the side.

24

What are the functions of adipose tissue?

Fuel reserve
Insulate against heat loss
Support and protect organs

25

Where is adipose tissue located?

Under skin (hypodermis)
Around kidneys
Behind eyeballs
In breasts
Around the heart

26

Describe dense irregular connective tissue

Composed of irregularly arranged collagen fibres.
Contains some elastic fibres and fibroblasts.

27

What is the function of dense irregular connective tissue?

Resist tension exerted in many directions.
Provide structural strength.

28

Where is dense irregular connective tissue located?

Dermis of skin
Submucosa of GI tract
Fibrous capsules of joints

29

What is meant by irregular arrangement of collagen fibres

Right angles without a uniform distribution

30

Describe dense regular connective tissue.

Primarily parallel collagen fibres.
Contains fibroblasts and some elastic fibres.
Poorly vascularized.
Withstands great tension in one direction.

31

What is the function of dense regular connective tissue?

Attaches muscle to bone (tendon) and bone to bone (ligament)

32

Where is dense regular connective tissue located?

Tendons and ligaments
Aponeuroses fascia around muscles
Fascia around muscles.

33

Why does dense regular connective tissue heal slowly?

Poorly vascularized

34

Describe elastic connective tissue?

Elastic fibres predominate

35

What is the function of elastic connective tissue?

Allows recoil after stretching.

36

Where is elastic connective tissue?

Within walls of arteries and aorta, certain ligaments and, surrounding bronchial tubes

37

Describe cartilage.

Firm, flexible tissue
Contains no blood vessels or nerves
Blood supply comes from surrounding periosteum
Matrix is mostly water
Gel-like ECM

38

What are the cells of cartilage?

Chondroblasts, chondrocytes

39

What are the fibre types of hyaline cartilage?

collagen

40

What do chondroblasts do in hyaline cartilage?

Produce matrix

41

What do chondrocytes do in hyaline cartilage?

Chondrocytes lie in lacunae, maintain metabolism of cartilage.

42

What is the function of hyaline cartilage?

Supports and reinforces
Cushions
Resists repetitive stress

43

Where is hyaline cartilage located?

Fetal skeleton
Ends of long bones
Costal cartilage of ribs
Cartilages of nose, trachea, larynx

44

What are the fibre types of elastic cartilage?

Collagen and elastic

45

What is the function of elastic cartilage?

Maintains shape of structure
Allows great flexibility

46

Where is elastic cartilage located?

Supports external ear (pinna)
Epiglottis

47

What is the basis of cauliflower ear?

Abrasion from punches or rubbing causes breaking of cartilage which, due to lack of blood supply, doesn't heal

48

What are the fibres of fibrocartilage?

Collagen
matrix less firm

49

What is the function of fibrocartilage?

Tensile strength and ability to absorb compressive shock.

50

Where is fibrocartilage located?

Intervetebral discs
Pubic symphysis
Discs of knee joint (menisci)

51

What is the matrix of cartilage?

Gel-like

52

Describe Scurvy.

Occurs due to vitamin D deficiency which is necessary for proper cross-linking of molecules which make up collagen fibres.
Collagen necessary for holding teeth in their sockets.
Symptoms include loss of teeth, blood vessel rupture, poor healing.