Flashcards in Human Anatomy Joints - intro Deck (37)
Rigid elements of the skeleton meet at ______ or __________.
Articulations can be of what form? (3)
Bone to bone
Bone to cartilage
Teeth in bony sockets
The structure of joints enables resistance to ______, _____ and other forces.
How are joints classififed?
Functionally, by the amount of movement allowed.
Structurally by the material that binds bones together and, the presence/absence of a joint cavity.
What are the different functional classifications of joints?
Synarthroses - immovable
Amphiarthroses - slightly movable
Diarthroses - freely movable
Synarthroses are common where?
Amphiarthroses are common where?
Diarthroses are common where.
All _______ joints are diarthroses.
What are the different structural classifications of joints?
Fibrous - fibers connect bones
Cartilaginous - collagen connects bones
Synovial - most of appendicular skeleton
What are the different types of fibrous joints? Classify them functionally as well.
Sutures - synarthrotic
Syndesmoses - amphiarthrotic
Gomphoses - synarthrotic
The junction of sutures is completely filled with ______ (CT) and _____
dense regular and collagen
Sutures link the bones of the _____ and allow for ______.
In syndesmoses, bones are connected by ______.
Ligament is composed of ______ (CT)
The amount of movement alloted by a a syndesmoses is based on what? Give an example for both.
Length of the ligament fibres.
Short - less movement
ex: ligament between tibia and fibular
Long - more movement
ex: interosseous membrane between radius and ulna
Gomphoses are ___-_____ fibrous joints.
Where are these located?
Periodontal ligament, holds teeth in jaw
Ligaments are composed of what type of CT?
What are the different cartilaginous joints?
Describe them functionally.
Synchondroses - synarthrotic
Describe synchondroses. Where are they located?
Bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites bones.
Location: epiphyseal plate
Describe symphyses and where they are located?
Fibrocartilage unites bones - resists tension and compression.
Hyaline cartilage still present in form of articular cartilage.
Slightly movable, provides strength and flexibility.
Found in the midline of the body: intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis
In the ribs, which joints are synchondroses. What are the rest?
Joint between the first rib and sternum is immovable and is a synchondrosis.
The rest are diarthrotic and considered to be synovial joints.
Describe the basic characteristics (not the general structure) of synovial joints.
Freely movable - diarthrotic
most movable joint type
each contains a fluid-filled joint cavity
What is the general structure of synovial joints?
1 - Articular cartilage
2 - Joint (synovial) cavity
3 - Articular capsule
4 - Synovial fluid
5 - Reinforcing ligaments
Describe articular cartilage in a joint?
Hyaline cartilage covers opposing bone surfaces to absorb compressive forces.
What is a joint cavity
Space containing synovial fluid
Describe an articular capsule.
What are the two layers?
Where are they found?
What is their function?
Two-layered capsule enclosing the joint cavity.
Fibrous capsule and synovial membrane.
Lines the joint capsule and covers the internal joint surface.
Functions to make synovial fluid.
What is the first layer (outer) of an articular capsule? What composes it?
Fibrous layer, made up of dense irregular connective tissue.
What is the inner layer of an articular capsule?
What composes it?
Synovial membrane, made up of areolar CT.
Why is the inner layer areolar CT?
Why is the outer layer dense irregular CT?
Inner layer is areolar since synovial fluid is a filtrate of blood, goes through areolar into the cavity.
Dense irregular to withstand tension and compression in different directions.
Describe synovial fluid.
Where is it found?
What functions does it serve?
Viscous fluid resembling white of egg.
Found in joint cavity within the articular cartilage
Lubricates and reduces friction between cartilages and, brings nutrients to the articular cartilages.
What are capsular ligaments?
Thickened part of fibrous capsule.
Can be intra or extracapsular ligaments.
How does synovial get cycled in and out of the capsule?
As we squeeze the joint, synovial fluid absorbs back into the capsule and, once the pressure is gone, will return to the cavity.
What is one reason for warming up?
After sleep, synovial fluid is viscous so, warming up cycles it and makes it more fluid.
Synovial joints are richly supplied with sensory nerves, these function to?
Monitor how much the capsule is being stretched.
Synovial joints have a rich blood supply. Most of these supply the ______ ______. Extensive capillary beds produce the basis of ________ _____.
Describe rheumatoid arthritis.
Attacks the joint capsule and synovial membrane.
This leads to formation of lackluster amount of fluid, causing swelling.
This reduces the space in the synovial cavity, reducing freedom of movement.