Flashcards in Human Behavior and the Designed Environment Deck (29):
What is thermal equilibrium?
The set of conditions that allows your body to stay at the normal body temperature with the minimal amount of bodily regulation.
When do we experience thermal comfort?
When our heat production equals heat loss.
Effects of cold on the body
Puts an increased strain on the heart, which pumps an increased amount of the blood directly to the skin and back to the heart, bypassing the brain and other organs, and we can become lethargic and mentally dull.
Effects of heat on the body
Increases fatigue and decreases our resistance to disease. If the body is not cooled, deep‐body temperature rises and impairs metabolic functions, which can result in heat stroke and death.
Heat is transferred through direct contact with cooler surfaces
Heat from the body is absorbed by air molecules.
Heat is transferred to cooler surfaces without physical contact.
Heat is drawn from the body's surface to provide energy to turn liquid water into water vapor.
What is Psychrometry
Study of moist air. Moisture, heat and air interact to affect building performance.
Describe visual comfort
Appropriate illumination, controlling glare, providing views to outdoors.
Name three other Human Environmental Requirements
Water and Waste Removal,
Fresh Air circulation, and protection from hazards and germs.
What is lead?
Lead is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the body and is espe-cially damaging to fetuses, infants, and young children, causing learning disabilities, nausea, neurological damage, and death.
Lead should be removed with what?
1. A professional licensed contractor
2. HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter
How should asbestos be removed?
Areas from which asbestos is being removed must be isolated
using airtight plastic containment barriers, and kept under nega-tive pressure with special HEPA filtration. The work site should be inspected and its air quality tested after the work is done.
Mandate that something be done in a certain way. Prescriptive codes define the means and methods by which the code is to be carried out.
Codes that state the objective that must be met, and may offer options for compliance.
A geographical area that uses the same codes, standards, and regulations. A jurisdiction may be as small as a township or as large as an entire state.
ICC International Performance Code for Buildings and
A model building code that attempts to unify code requirements across geographic barriers. Introduced by the International Codes Council (ICC) in 2002, the IPC has been adopted statewide or in some localities in all US states.
National Fire Protection Association
The NFPA establishes testing requirements covering everything from textiles to firefighting equipment to the design of means of egress.
National Standards Institute (ANSI)
Oversees the creation, promulgation, and use of thousands of norms and guidelines that directly impact businesses in nearly every sector, including acoustical devices, construction equipment, energy distribution, and many more.
ASTM International ,
(American Society for testing and Materials)
Develops over 12,000 ASTM voluntary consensus standards used around the world to improve product quality, enhance safety, facilitate market access and trade, and build
Underwriters Laboratories (UL), certifies, validates, tests,
audits, and advises and trains users of products, systems, and materials.
3 examples of congressionally passed laws with wide implications for interior designers and architects
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), Fair Housing Act (FHA), and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Americans with Dis-abilities Act (ADA)
The ADA is a comprehensive civil rights law with four sections.
Title I protects individuals with disabilities in employment.
Title II covers state and local government services and public transportation.
Title III covers all public accommodations, defined as any facility that offers food or services to the public. It also applies to commercial facilities, which are non-residential buildings that do business but are not open to the general public.
Title IV deals with telecommunications services, and requires telephone companies to provide telecommunications relay services for individuals with hearing and speech impairments.
2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design
Publication giving helpful information on interpretation and compliance.
International Energy Conservation Code (IECC)
Addresses energy efficiency, including cost savings, reduced energy us-age, conservation of natural resources, and the impact of energy usage on the environment.
ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1—Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low‐Rise Residential Buildings
This standard provides the minimum requirements for energy‐efficient design of most non-residential buildings.
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 90.2—Energy Efficient Design of Low Rise Buildings
Residential energy requirements focused on minimum requirements for the building envelope (walls, floors, roofs, doors, windows) and mechanical equipment performance for heating, cooling, and domestic hot water.