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Psychology 101 and 102 > Human Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Human Development Deck (53):
1

Developmental Psychology is...

Long-term constancies and changes that a person experiences throughout the lifespan from conception to death.
- Study of how behaviour changes over time.

2

Post-hoc fallacy

Things that occur first do not necessarily cause things that come later.

3

Bidirectional Influences

Children influence parents, and this can lead to parents doing certain things that influence children.

4

Cross-sectional Design

Researchers examine people of different ages at a single point in time. "snapshot" of each person at a single age. Some when they are 24, some 47 etc.

5

What is the problem with cross-sectional design

There is no control for cohort effects. "snapshot" of each person at a single age.

6

Cohort effect

effects duet o groups living during one time-period.

7

Longitudinal Design

Track the development of the same group of people over time.

8

What are two myths of developmental psychology

Infant determinism - extremely early experiences (first 3 years).
Childhood Fragility - children are delicate little creatures that are easily damaged. Children - resilient, and capability of withstanding stress.

9

What evidence is there that infant determinism is not true

Guatemalen infants – raised them in almost isolation for first year of life. Some developmental delays. But by adolescence, caught up -
cognitive and social development.
Neuroscience - brain changes in important ways in response to experinece throughout childhood and well into early adulthood.

10

Gene expression

Some genes "turn on" only in response to specific environmental conditions.

11

What is imprinting

When animals (newly hatched goslings) become socially bonded to the first moving oject they saw). Known as irreversible learning.

12

What did Genie, the abandoned child demonstrate

Language development must occur before puberty or there will be lasting deficits.

13

Order the following stages of physical development:
-germinal period
- embryonic period
- proliferation
- fetal period

- Germinal period – fertilised egg (zygote) – 2 week period of rapid cell division.
- Embryonic Period – 2-8th week. Nervous system starts to develop. Limbs, facial features, heat etc.
- Proliferation – between the 18th day and the end of the 6th month – neurons develop at a astronomical rate.
- 4th month of pregnancy migration of cells begins to occur – sort themselves out into particular positions and particular structure.
- Fatal Period – 9th – birth – all major organs developed. Fleshing out what is already there.

14

What is the difference between the primary and secondary sex characteristics.

Primary sex characteristics – reproductive organs and genitals

Secondary Sex Characteristics – don’t develop until full sexual maturity.

15

What are the obstacles to normal foetal development

Hazardous environmental influences (tetragons, foetal alcohol syndrom).
Genetic Disorders
Premature Birth

16

Piaget's theory primarily focuses on

Stages of development.

17

Who was the first developmental theorist that realised that children are not just little adults

Piaget

18

Who was the first to present a comprehensive account of cognitive development

Piaget

19

In what was was piaget a constructivist theorist?

Children construct an understanding of their world based on observations of the effects of their behaviours.

20

What are the three phases of Consructivist theorist (Piaget)

1. Equilibriation
2. Assimilation
3. Accomodation

21

What is equilibriation (piaget)

maintain the balance between our experience of the world and our observations of the world. (Matching thinking about world with observations of it)

22

What is assimilation (piaget)

Process of absorbing new information into existing knowledge structures (i.e., schemas) (Reinterprets new experiences to fit into the world they already know)

23

What is Accomodation (piaget)

Process of altering a belief to make it more compatible with experience.

24

What is an example of a schema in children

baby seeing a horst for the first time. Accomodation and assimiliation - the pictures of fake horses are the same as a real horse.

25

Describe the sensorimotor stage of development (piaget)

o Object Permanence. Objects continue to exist outside of view.
o Main sources of knowledge come from physical interactions with the world.

26

Describe four aspects of Preoperational Stage of development (Piaget)

1. difficulty with Conservation - Knowing that despite a change that’s made in a object, it is still the same object. Lack understanding that a change in form doesn’t mean there is a change in amount.
2. Egocentrism - inability to see the world from others points of view.
3. Symbolic Behaviour - use language, drawings, objects as representations of ideas. (pretend play)
4. Can't Form Mental Transformations - generate a mental image of a vase on the table if the vase isn't there.

27

Describe the Operational Stage (Piaget)

Between 7-11 years.
Ability to perform mental operations, but only for actual physical events.
- pass conservation tasks.
- difficulty performing mental operation in abstract or hypothetical situations.

28

What is conservation

Knowing that despite a change that’s made in a object, it is still the same object. Lack understanding that a change in form doesn’t mean there is a change in amount.

29

Describe Formal Operations Stage

- Adolescence
- Hypothetical reasoning
- Experiment systematiclly with hypothesis and explain outcomes.
- If-then statements.

30

What are some critiques of piaget's theory

- Strict stage approach to development.
- Underestimated the capacities of infants and preschool children.
- Rarely considered the role of culture in cognitive development.
- Development is continuous rather than stage-like.
- Less domain-central than piaget proposed.
- Probably underestimated children’s ability – using self-report measures. E.g., object permanence and hypothesis testing can be performed at considerable earlier stages.

31

Which theorist had a constructivist view of development?

Piaget

32

Which theorist had a socio-cultural view of cognitive development?

Vygotsky

33

What is a socio-cultural view of ognitive development

1. Cutlure and society influence cognitive development.
2. Cognition proceeds because of social interactions where partners jointly work to solve problems.

34

What is the zone of proximal development

The phase in learning which children can benefit most from instruction.

35

Scaffolding is a term that was not used by this theorist but has been used by others in relation to this theorists view.

Vygotsky - scaffolding - temporary support.

36

What are general cognitive accounts (theories of cognitive development)

Learning as gradual rather than stage like. But emphasises general cognitive abilities that are acquired.

37

What are modular accounts of theories of cognitive development

Emphasises the idea of domain-specific learning. Separate spheres of knowledge in different domains. E.g., knowledge based or understanding language – independent of the ability to reason about space.

38

What is "theory of mind"?

Children's ability to reason about what other people feel, want or think.

39

What is is theory of Mind tested

False-belief Task. (children with autism consistently fail this test).

40

What are the critical/sensitive periods of attachement?

1. Indiscriminate sociability (birth – 2 months)
2. Attachments in the making (2-7 months)
3. Specific clear-cut attachments (7-24 months)
4. Goal-coordinated partnerships (2 – onwards)

41

What did Ainsworth (1978) establish in his experiment?

Strange situation paradigm. Stranger entering the room.
Various types of attachment.

42

What did harlow establish about attachment?

contact comfort – physical closeness that we have with someone that’s taking care of us. Bond not by nourishment but through attachment. Monkey research.

43

Describe secure attachment (Ainsworth)

- Upset when mother leaves
- Greets and contacts mother when she returns
- Outgoing with stranger when mother present.
- Let themselves be comforted by the stranger the 2nd time.
- Easily comforted, happy upon the return of the mother to the room.
- Use the mother as a secure base – I can be brave.
- Knowing my parent is a predictable person that will do the things that I need them to do.

44

Describe Insecure-Avoidant Attachment (15-20%)

- Indifference when the mother leaves
- Little reaction when she returns
- Ignores stranger
- Uninterested in exploring environment.
- Mixed responses.

45

Describe Insecure-anxious attachment (15-20%)

- Panics when mother leaves
- Mixed emotional reaction on her return – both reaches for her and squirms when she picks infant up.
- Anxiety about exploring environment
- Wary of stranger when mother present.

46

Describe disorganised attachement (5-10%)

- Added by Main and colleagues
- Unpredictable and contradictory reactions to mother’ leaving and return.
- May appear dazed/disoriented when reunited.
- May approach mother while gazing elsewhere.

47

What des stability of early attachment

- A child’s early attachment style becomes an internal working model of relationships.
- Children who are more secure with their parents have more positive relationship expectations.
- This leads to them to be more trusting and engaging with peer and lovers
- Peers and lovers are more likely to respond positively.
- A self-reinforcing cycle.
- However, can be undone by more secure attachments later in life (e.g., friendships in high school, marriage).

48

What are the four parenting styles

- Permissive
- Authoritarian
- Authoritative
- Uninvolved

49

Describe the best parenting environment

Average expectable environment – environment that provides for children’s basic needs for affection and appropriate discipline. (Heinz Hartman). Donald Winnicott – parenting need only be “good enough”.

50

Describe a gender role

Behaviours that typically tend to be associated with being male or female (e.g. mowing lawn).

51

Describe a gender identity

People’s sense of being male or female.

52

What is socialisation?

Refers to the process by which children learn the beliefs, values, skills, and behaviour patterns of their society.

53

Describe Erikson's stages of development

1. Infancy – trust vs mistrust
2. Toddlerhood – autonomy vs shame and doubt
3. Early childhood – initiative vs guilt
4. Middle childhood – industry vs inferiority
5. Adolescence – identity vs role confusion
6. Young Adulthood – intimacy vs isolation
7. Adulthood – generativity vs stagnation
8. Ageing – integrity vs despair.
1. Infancy – trust vs mistrust
2. Toddlerhood – autonomy vs shame and doubt
3. Early childhood – initiative vs guilt
4. Middle childhood – industry vs inferiority
5. Adolescence – identity vs role confusion
6. Young Adulthood – intimacy vs isolation
7. Adulthood – generativity vs stagnation
8. Ageing – integrity vs despair.