Flashcards in Human Geography Deck (55):
What are the types of population pyramids?
Wide base, small base, same sized base.
What does a population pyramid with a wide base mean?
There is a large population of young people; population is growing.
What does a small base pyramid mean?
There is a small population of young people; population is shrinking.
What does a same size base pyramid mean?
The population is staying the same.
What age groups are part of the dependency load?
Under fifteen and above sixty five.
How do you calculate population density?
What factors may influence where a city is built?
Climate, close to water, room for growth, good biodiversity.
Name the different types of cities.
Manufacturing cities, transportation hubs, tourist cities, government centres, resource-based communities.
Define what basic industries are.
Industry that sells its products outside the community, bringing money into the community.
Define what non-basic industries are.
Industry that sells its products within the community; it does not bring money into the community.
Define threshold population.
Number of customers needed to make a business profitable or to allow service, such as a post office or library, to be offered.
Define high order goods and services.
High-priced product or service purchased infrequently.
Define middle order goods and services.
Good or service that people buy occasionally.
Define low order goods and services.
Product or service that is bought frequently.
Define economic base.
Economic activities that allow a community to exist. For example, a town exist might exist because a mineral resource in the area is being developed.
Define multiplier effect.
Total effect on the community caused by an expansion or contraction on one part of it. For example, a new mine employing 300 people may cause 900 other jobs to develop in manufacturing and service.
Define push factors:
Factor, such as unemployment or the lack of freedom of speech, that makes people want to leave their country and move to another one.
Define pull factors.
Factors such as freedom of speech or employment opportunities that attract a person to a country.
What are the different types of urban sprawl?
Normal sprawl, linear sprawl, leapfrogging, in-filling.
Describe what happens during normal sprawl.
When the city develops out towards the outer edges of the city.
Describe what happens during linear sprawl.
When the city develops out towards the transportation routes leading out of the city.
Describe what happens during leapfrogging.
Where cities develop on cheap land far away from the pre-existing urban development.
Describe what happens during in-filling.
When the less-desirable land left over after leapfrogging is developed.
How does the construction of more roads add to the problem of urban sprawl.
Adding more roads also adds new residential areas along the roads.
What are the problems caused by urban sprawl?
More traffic congestion, pollution and loss of agricultural land.
What is demography?
Study of population numbers, distribution, trends and issues.
Define natural increase rate.
Difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country.
Define net migration rate.
Difference between people immigrating to a country and people emigrating from that same country.
How do you calculate the birth/death/immigration/emigration rate?
# of births/deaths/immigrants/emigrants divided by total population x100
Define population growth rate.
Measurement which combines both natural increase and net migration to calculate the overall growth of a country's population.
How do you calculate the natural increase rate (NIR)?
Birth rate - death rate
How do you calculate the net migration rate (NMR)?
Immigration rate - emigration rate.
How do you calculate the population growth rate?
NIR + NMR
What are some advantages of living in a city?
More jobs available, more access to shopping, less isolated, more entertainment, larger variety of housing available, more available education.
What are some disadvantages of living in a city?
Litter/pollution, loud, higher crime rate, more poverty, expensive, crowded, traffic congestion, not a lot of nature.
What are the urban physical challenges?
Physical blight, functional blight, frictional blight.
What happens during physical blight? Give an example.
Problems associated with the way things look in a community. Ex. An abandoned building or business is usually referred to as an eyesore.
What happens during functional blight? Give an example.
When a building is no longer used for its original purpose. Ex. A residential single-family house is turned into a group home.
What happens during frictional blight? Give an example.
When conflicting or disagreeable land uses occur side by side. Ex. A dump is built next to a residential neighbourhood.
What are the social challenges of urban development?
Poverty and crime
What are some ways to make an attractive city?
Not too chaotic but not too ordered, visible life, compact (squares have a feeling of containment, not claustrophobia), scale (ideal height is 5 stories. The tall buildings should align with values).
What is a central business district, or CBD?
The prime business area of a city. Usually known as downtown.
Why do businesses want to be built in the CDB?
Easy access, more customers, near other businesses, transportation links.
What land use patterns are located in the CBD?
Commercial, residential, industrial (sometimes the only one left out), institutional, open space, transportation.
State how much land should be taken up be each land use in a city.
Residential-40%, open space-7%, transportation-32%, commercial-5%, industrial-6%, institutional-10%.
Name and describe the three types of immigrants under Canada's immigration policy.
Economic Immigrants (largest) — skilled workers and business class.
Family immigrants — Helps reunite families.
What is the criteria used to decide if an immigrant applying in the economic class has enough points?
Education, language (English or French), Work Experience, Age, Arranged Employment in Canada, Adaptability.
How many points does an immigrant need?
Under what conditions in a refugee allowed to come to Canada?
Have good health, have a valid passport/travel documents, valid identity documents and no criminal record. They cannot be perceived as a security risk.
How does poverty impact Hamilton?
20% of people live below the poverty line in Hamilton. Wages are not enough for people to support their families. Usually have to decide between buying food and paying rent. More than 15,000 Hamiltonians visit food banks each month.
Explain the baby boom.
When soldiers came back from war between 1946 and 1965, a lot of babies were born.
Explain some myths and truths about Canadian immigration.
Myth: immigrants steal jobs.
Truth: immigrants take jobs Canadians don't want or start businesses that employ Canadians.
Myth: immigrants do not contribute fair share of taxes.
Truth: immigrants are less likely to be on welfare than the average Canadian. Plus, they contribute more money to our social services than they use.
Myth: immigrants don't know our basic values.
Truth: our basic values are why immigrants decide to come to Canada.
Myth: immigrants are more often involved with crime.
Truth: immigrants commit fewer criminal acts than native-born Canadians.
Explain the difference between multiculturalism and assimilation.
Multiculturalism allows everyone to keep their cultures and beliefs, while also adding on those of the country they are coming in.
Assimilation makes everyone conform to the culture of the country in which they live.
What are some Canadian values and beliefs?
Democracy, freedom, multiculturalism, lawfulness, equality, peace, hard work, independence, respect and tolerance.