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Flashcards in Human Growth & Development Deck (32):
1

A child is 5 mos old. This child is in Jean Piaget's first stage, billed as the sensorimotor stage, which runs from birth until approximately 2 years of age. The child accidentally touches the doll because she wants to hear the noise. According to the Piagetian theory of cognitive development, this is an example of:
a) a primary circular (repeated) reaction
b) a secondary circular (repeated) reaction
c) the fact that the child has mastered conservation
d) all of the above could conceivable be correct. More information is necessary

b) a secondary circular (repeated) reaction

2

A client comes to you complaining that her 2 1/2 year old son isn't walking. You should tell her:
a) this is totally normal
b) this is late to begin walking however, no special intervention is recommended until age 3
c) to contact her pediatrician. There could be a developmental problem
d) you cannot take a stand on this and refer the client back to her pediatrician, emphasizing that you are not a medical doctor

c) to contact her pediatrician. There could be a developmental problem

3

The only psychoanalyst who created a developmental theory which encompasses the entire life span was:
a) Erik Erikson
b) Milton H. Erickson
c) A. A. Bell
d) Jean Piaget

a) Erik Erikson

4

The statement "the ego is dependent on the id," would most likely reflect the work of:
a) Erik Erikson
b) Sigmund Freud
c) Jay Haley
d) Arnold Lazarus, William Perry, & Robert Kegan

b) Sigmund Freud

5

Jean Piaget's theory has 4 stages. The correct order from stage 1 to stage 4 is:
a) formal operations, concrete operations, preoperations, sensorimotor
b) formal operations, preoperations, concrete operations, sensorimotor
c) sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations
d) concrete operations, sensorimotor, preoperations, formal operations

c) sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations

6

In Piagetian literature, conservation would most likely refer to:
a) volume or mass
b) defense of the ego
c) the sensorimotor intelligence stage
d) a specific psycho-sexual stage of life

a) volume or mass

7

Lawrence Kohlberg suggested:
a) a single level of morality
b) two levels of morality
c) three levels of morality
d) preoperational thought as the basis for all morality

c) three levels of morality

8

Trust vs. mistrust is:
a) ad Adlerian notion of morality
b) Erik Erikson's first stage of psycho-social development
c) essentially equivalent to Piaget's concept of ego-centrism
d) the basis of morality according to Kohlberg

b) Erik Erikson's first stage of psycho-social development

9

Kolhberg's highest level of morality is termed post-conventional morality. Here the individual:
a) must truly content with psycho-sexual urges
b) has the so-called "good boy/good girl" orientation
c) has self-imposed morals and ethics
d) a and b

c) has self-imposed morals and ethics

10

The zone of proximal development:
a) was pioneered by Lev Vygotsky
b) was pioneered by Piaget and Kohlberg
c) emphasized organ inferiority
d) a, b, and c

a) was pioneered by Lev Vygotsky

11

John Bowlby's name is most closely associated with:
a) the work of psychologist and pediatrician, Arnold Gesell, a maturationist
b) developmental stage theories
c) bonding and attachment
d) the unconscious mind

c) bonding and attachment

12

The statement: "males are better than females when performing mathematical calculations" is:
a) false
b) true due to a genetic flaw commonly found in women
c) true only in middle-aged men
d) true according to research by Maccoby and Jacklin

d) true according to research by Maccoby and Jacklin

13

The fear of death:
a) is greatest during middle age
b) is an almost exclusively male phenomenon
c) is the number one psychiatric problem in the geriatric years
d) surprisingly enough occurs in the teen years

a) is greatest during middle age

14

When comparing girls to boys, it could be noted that:
a) girls grow up to smile more
b) girls are using more feeling words by age 2
c) girls are better able to read people without verbal cues at any age
d) all of the above

d) all of the above

15

Development:
a) begins at birth
b) begins during the first trimester of pregnancy
c) is a continuous process which begins at conception
d) a and c

c) is a continuous process which begins at conception

16

Development is cephalocaudal, which means:
a) foot to head
b) head to foot
c) limbs receive the highest level of nourishment
d) b and c

b) head to foot

17

Freud's Oedipus Complex:
a) is the stage in which fantasies of sexual relations with the opposite-sex parent occurs
b) occurs during the phallic stage
c) a and b
d) is a concept Freud ultimately eliminated from his theory

c) a and b

18

Theorist who believe that development merely consists of quantitative changes are referred to as:
a) organismic theorist
b) statistical developmentalist
c) empiricist
d) all of the above

c) empiricist

19

John Bowlby has asserted that:
a) attachment is not instinctual
b) attachment is best explained via Skinnerian principle
c) a and b
d) conduct disorders and other forms of psychopathology can result from inadequate attachment and bonding in early childhood

d) conduct disorders and other forms of psychopathology can result from inadequate attachment and bonding in early childhood

20

An expert who has reviewed the literature on TV and violence would conclude that:
a) watching violence tends to make children more aggressive
b) watching violence tends to make children less aggressive
c) in reality TV has no impact on a child's behavior
d) what adults see as violent, children perceive as caring

a) watching violence tends to make children more aggressive

21

Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson agreed that:
a) each developmental stage needed to be resolved before an individual move on to the next stage
b) developmental stages are primarily psychosexual
c) developmental stages are primarily psychosocial
d) a person can proceed to a higher stage even if a lower stage in unresolved

a) each developmental stage needed to be resolved before an individual move on to the next stage

22

The tendency for adult females in the US to wear high heels is best explained by:
a) the principle of negative reinforcement
b) sex role socialization
c) Konrad Lorenz's studies on imprinting
d) ethological data

b) sex role socialization

23

A preschool child's concept of causality is said to be animistic. This means the child attributes human characteristic to inanimate objects. Thus, the child may fantasize that an automobile or a rock is talking to him. This concept is best related to:
a) Carl Jung's concepts of anima animus
b) Frued's wish fulfillment
c) Paget's preoperational period, age 2 to 7 years
d) ego identity

c) Paget's preoperational period, age 2 to 7 years

24

According to the Yale research by Daniel J. Levinson:
a) Erikson's generativity vs stagnation stage simply doesn't exist
b) 80% of the men in the study experienced moderate to severe midlife crises
c) an "age 30 crisis" occurs in men when they feel it will soon be too late to make later changes
d) b and c

d) b and c

25

Which theorist was most concerned with maternal deprivation?
a) A. Lazarus
b) H. Harlow
c) J. Wolpe
d) A. Ellis

b) H. Harlow

26

Maslow, a humanistic psychologist, is famous for his "hierarchy of needs," which postulates:
a) lower-order physiological and safety needs and higher-order needs, such as self-actualization
b) that psychopathology rests within the id
c) that unconscious drives control self-actualization
d) that stimulus-response

a) lower-order physiological and safety needs and higher-order needs, such as self-actualization

27

Ritualistic behaviors, which are common to all members of a species, are known as:
a) hysteria
b) pica
c) fixed-action patterns elicited by sign stimuli
d) dysfunctional repetition

c) fixed-action patterns elicited by sign stimuli

28

Equilibration is:
a) a term which emphasizes the equality between the sexes
b) performed via the id according to the Freudians
c) a synonym for concrete operational thought
d) the balance between what one takes in (assimilation) and that which is changed (accommodation)

d) the balance between what one takes in (assimilation) and that which is changed (accommodation)

29

The anal retentive personality is:
a) charitable
b) stingy
c) kind
d) thinks very little about money matters

b) stingy

30

Theorist who views developmental changes as quantitative is said to be what?

Empiricist

31

This concept refers to the study of personality through interpretation of behavior or nonverbal cues. It can also mean that the counselor uses the factors/tests to label the client in a diagnostic category. What is this concept?

Psychodiagnostic

32

Erik Erickson is an ego psychologist. Ego psychologist

Believe in man's powers of reasoning to control behavior.