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Human Factors: Exam 1 > Human Information Processing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Human Information Processing Deck (28):
1

Three Stage Model

Stimulus -> [(Perceptual Stage) -> (Cognition Stage) -> (Action Stage)] -> Response
[happens inside, cant see it]

2

Perceptual Stage

Gets information from the sensory organs about stimuli
involved in detection, discrimination, and identification

3

Cognition Stage

Identifies or classifies the stimulus
Starts to form a response

4

Action Stage

Overt response is planned and preformed (if need)

5

Sensory Memory

Gets information from the senses about stimuli
Passes information to working memory by attention

6

Iconic memory

for visual stimuli
"Eye"conic

7

Echoic memory

for auditory stimuli
Sound echos

8

Haptic memory

for touch
feel the Hat on your head?

9

Working Memory

A temporary memory system to do and order complicated tasks
Fragile and contents must be maintained (rehearsal)
Passes information to Long-term memory by encoding
Components:
the Phonological loop and the Visuo-spatial sketchpad

10

Phonological loop

stores the sound of language
You hear someone speak on the "Phone"

11

Visuo-spatial sketchpad

stores visual and spatial information
draws info out in your head

12

Data-Limited Processing

Info is too "low quality" (degraded or imperfect)

13

Resource-Limited Processing

system is not strong enough do the task efficiently
Asking to much of the system

14

Structurally Limited Processing

Cant do several tasks at once

15

Detectability

the absolute limits of the systems to detect that a stimulus is present

16

Discriminability

the ability to determine that two stimuli differ from each other

17

Psychophysical Scaling

The relationship between perceived magnitude and physical magnitude

18

Absolute threshold

Smallest amount of intensity needed for a person to notice a stimulus

19

Difference threshold

Smallest amount of difference needed for a person to perceive two stimuli as different

20

Signal Detection

Observer has to say if the signal is there or not

21

Signal Detection- Hit

Signal: Present
Response: Yes (Present)

22

Signal Detection- Miss

Signal: Present
Response: No (Absent)

23

Signal Detection- False Alarm

Signal: Absent
Response: Yes (Present)

24

Signal Detection- Correct rejection

Signal: Absent
Response: No (Absent)

25

Direct Scaling Procedures

Ask the person rate the perceived intensity of the stimuli

26

Indirect Scaling Procedures

Derive the quantitative scale indirectly from a persons performance at discriminating stimuli

27

Yerkes-Dodson Law

The relationship between preforms and arousal, bell curve. depends by task complexity

28

Stevens’ Law

The relationship between physical intensity and psychological magnitude