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Regulatory Physiology and Pharmacology > Human Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Human Reproduction Deck (59)
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1

what are the 4 stages of sexual arousal?

excitement
plateau
orgasm
resolution

2

What happens to males during excitement?

testicular vasocongestion
erection

3

What happens to females during excitement?

vasodilation of vagina and swelling of labia
erection of clitoris
lubrication of vagina
enlargement of breasts
flush to skin

4

What kind of nervous supply causes the erection?

parasympathetic

5

What is the plateau phase in men?

increase HR, BP, resps, muscle tension

6

What is the plateau phase in women?

same as males but also uterus raises, lifts cervix and enlarges upper 1/2 of vagina to make room for ejaculate

7

What happens during orgasm?

rhythmic contractions of pelvic muscles every 0.8s
increase HR, BP, resp rate muscle tension
ejaculation in men
intense physical pleasure

8

What are the phases of ejaculation?

emission and explusion

9

What happens during emission?

sympathetic response causes contraction of the glands in prostate, reproductive ducts and seminal vesicles into the urethra

10

What happens during expulsion?

motorneurons induce rhythmic contraction of skeletal muscle and force semen out

11

What is the amount of semen produced per ml?

66million/ml

12

What is considered to be clinically infertile?

>20million/ml

13

Approximately what percentage of sperm reach the ovum and when?

0.001% about 30-60 mins after ejaculation

14

What is capacitation?

the process sperm must go through in order to be capable of fertilisation

15

What happens during capacitation?

surface of sperm altered by removal of glycoprotein
tail movements become whip-like
cAMP levels rise to promote acrosomal reaction

16

What happens upon sperm entry to the ovum?

stimulates Ca release which blocks polyspermy

17

What happens upon sperm entry to the ovum?

stimulates Ca release which blocks polyspermy

18

What are the chemicals used by the sperm to penetrate the egg?

Allurin
Fertilin
Acrosomal reaction

19

What is allurin?

released by mature ovum to guide sperm to the egg using an olfactory receptor

20

What is fertilin?

protein on sperm that binds to integrin on oocyte

21

How is the ovum guided to the oviduct?

by fimbriae sweeping it in by smooth muscle contraction and cilia

22

What is a trophoblast?

the blastocyst that accomplishes implantation and develops into fetal portions of the placenta

23

What happens upon implantation?

trophoblast cells burrow into the endometrium carving a hole for the blastocyst

24

What happens when implantation is finished?

the blastocyst is completely buried in the endometrium

25

How do the trophoblasts burrow into the endometrium?

by releasing proteases

26

What becomes the foetal placenta?

synctiotrophoblast

27

What occurs with decidualisation?

increased local vascularisation and nutrient storage for the blastocyst

28

When is the blastocyst completely buried?

by day 12

29

How does the embryo get nutrients from the maternal blood supply?

sends capillaries into the synctiotrophoblast to form placental villi

30

What prevents the mixing of maternal and feotal blood?

the villi and maternal blood are separated by a thin layer of tissue