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BIOL-L112 Exam 4 > Human Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Human Reproduction Deck (77):
1

Sexual Reproduction

Creation of an offspring by fusion of a male
gamete (sperm) and female gamete (egg) to form a zygote

2

Asexual Reproduction

is creation of an offspring without the fusion of egg and sperm

3

How many parents needed in Asexual?

One

4

How many parents needed in Sexual?

Two; Mom and Dad

5

Asexual; How many gametes required?

None

6

Sexual; Are gametes required?

Yes

7

Asexual; Are they genetically identical?

Yes

8

Sexual; Are they genetically identical?

No

9

Asexual; Budding

Simple form of asexual reproduction found only among invertebrates.

10

Asexual; Where do they rise from?

From outgrowths of existing ones

11

Asexual; Binary Fission

Many invertebrates reproduce asexually by fission,
separation of a parent into two or more individuals of about the same size.

12

Hermaphroditism

It is where each individual has male and female reproductive systems. They can mate, and some can self-fertilize

13

Example of Hermaphroditism?

Snails and Worms

14

Variation in Patterns of Sexual Reproduction 2

Individuals in some species undergo sex reversals changing sex ratios

15

Examples of Male to Female reversal

Certain Oysters

16

Examples of Females to Male reversal

Coral Reef Fish

17

What is Fertilization?

Union of egg and sperm, plays important role in sexual reproduction

18

What is External Fertilization?

Effs shed by the female are fertilized by sperm in the external environment

19

Why is a most habitat important?

Always required for external fertilization to allow sperm to swim to the egg and to prevent the gametes from drying out

20

Internal Fertilization; where are sperm deposited?

In or near the female reproductive tract

21

What is internal fertilization associated with?

Production of fewer gametes but the survival of a higher fraction of zygotes

22

Where are the testes in the male mammals held?

In the scrotum, where the temperature is lower than in the abdominal cavity

23

What are Testes?

Consist of highly coiled tubes surrounded by connective tissue

24

Where do sperm form in the testes?

Form in the seminiferous tubules

25

What are Leydig cells?

Produce hormones and are scattered between the tubules

26

From the seminiferous tubulues of the testis, sperm passes where?

Passes into the coiled duct of the epidiymis?

27

During ejaculation, where does sperm go?

Propelled through the muscular vas deferens and the ejaculatory duct, and then exit the penis through the urethra

28

What is semen composed of?

Composed of sperm plus secretions from three sets of accessory glands

29

What contributes to 60% of the total volume of semen?

Two seminal Vesicles

30

What does the Prostate Gland do?

Secretes it products directly into the uretra through several small ducts

31

What do Bulbourethral Glands do?

Secrete a clear mucus before ejaculation that neutralizes acidic acid urine remaining in the uretha

32

Penis is composed of how many cylinders of spongy erectile tissue?

3

33

The glans is surrounded by a fold of skin called?

Prepuce

34

Female external reproductive structure includes ?

Clitoris and two sets of labia

35

What internal organs are in a female reproductive system?

Are a pair of gonads and a system of ducts and chambers that carry gametes and house the embryo and fetus

36

Where do Ovaries lie in the female?

In the abdominal Cavity

37

What does each female ovary contain?

Many follicles, which consist of a partially developed eff called an oocyte surrounded by support cells

38

Where from the egg cell travel from the ovary to the uterus?

Travels via an oviduct, or fallopian tube

39

Cilia in the oviduct convey the egg to the ___

uterus, also called the womb

40

What is the uterus lining called?

The endometrium

41

The vagina opens to the outside at the ____

Vulva

42

What does the Vulva consist of?

Labia Majora, Labia Minora, Hymen, and Clitoris

43

What is the head of the clitoris called?

Glands, covered by the prepuce (a small hood of skin)

44

What are mammary glands?

Are not part of the reproducitve system but ar important to mammalian reproduction

45

What is Gametogenesis?

Production of gametes (sperm and eggs)

46

What is Spermatogenesis?

Formation of sperm, is continuous and prolific.

47

How many sperm produced per day?

Hundreds of millions

48

How long does it take for sperm to develop?

Seven Weeks

49

What is Oogenesis?

Development of a mature egg, a prolonged process

50

What hormones coordinate human reproduction?

Hypothalamus, Anterior Pituitary and Gonad

51

GnRH is secreted and directs the release of what?

Secreted by the hypothalamus and directs release of FSH and LH from anterior pituitary

52

What do FSH and LH do?

Regulate processes in the gonads and the production of sex hormones

53

What is the main sex hormone?

Steroid Hormones

54

What is the main androgen?

Testosterone

55

What does Estrogen consist of?

Mainly estradiol and Progesterone

56

What does FSH do in Males?

Promotes activity of Sertoli cells which nourish development sperm

57

What does LH do in males?

Regulates Leydig cells, secrete testosterone and other androgens which in turn promote spermatogensis

58

Testosterone regulates production of__

GnRH, FSH, LH through negative feedback

59

Sertoli cells secrete the hormone ___

Inhibin, which reduces FSH secretion from the anterior pituitary

60

In females, secretion of hormones and reproductive events they regulate are ___

cyclic

61

Prior to ovulation, what happens?

Endometrium thickens with blood vessels in preparation for embryo implantation

62

What happens if the embryo does not implant in the endometrium?

ENdometrium is shed in a process called menstruation

63

Hormones link what two cycles of female reproduction?

Urerine and Ovarian

64

Uterine Cycle does what?

Changes in teh uterus define the menstrual cycle

65

What happens in the Ovarian cycle?

Changes in the Ovaries

66

In the Ovarian Cycle, what is released?

GnRH and then FSH and LH stimulate follicle growth

67

Ovarian Cycle Step 1

Follicle growth and an increase in the hormone estradiol characterize the follicular phase

68

Ovarian Cycle Step 2

The follicular phase ends at olulation and the secondary oocyte is released

69

What happens in the Luteal Phase?

Following Ovulation, the follicular tissue left behind is stimulated to transform into a corpus luteum

70

What does the Corpus Luteum secrete?

Progesterone and Estradiol, which exert negative feedack on the hypothalamus and pituitary

71

What coordinates the uterine cycle with the ovarian cycle?

Hormones

72

What happens during the proliferative phase?

Thickening of the endometrium during the proliferative phase coordinates with the follicular phase

73

What happens during the secretory phase?

Secretion of nutrients during the secretory phase coordinates with the luteal phase

74

What happens during the menstrual flow phase?

Shedding of the endometrium during the mentrual flow phase coordinates with the growth of new ovarian follicles

75

When does a new cycle begin?

If no embryo implants in the endometrium

76

What is Endometriosis?

When swelling of these cells in response to hormone stimulation

77

What is Menopause?

After 500 cycles, the cessation of ovulation and menstruation