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Flashcards in Humanism Deck (50):


A nonjudgmental recognition of oneself, others, and the world.



Maslow’s term for being needs that arise out of the organism’s drive to self-actualize and fulfill its inherent potential.


client-centered therapy

A therapeutic technique developed by Rogers that focuses attention on the person seeking help.


conditional positive regard

In Rogers’s theory, positive regard that is given only under certain circumstances.


conditions of worth

In Rogers’s theory, stipulations imposed by other people indicating when an individual will be given positive regard.



In Rogers’s theory, the state of harmony that exists when a person’s symbolized experiences reflect all the actual experiences of his or her organism.


evaluative response

In Rogers’s theory, a response that places a value judgment on thoughts, feelings, wishes, or behavior.



A state of oneness with the activity and situation at hand, entailing heightened focus, productivity, and happiness.


fully functioning person

A term used by Rogers to indicate an individual who is functioning at an optimum level.



A therapist’s attitude characterized by congruence and awareness in the therapeutic relationship.


hierarchy of needs

Maslow’s theory of five basic needs ranked in order of strength: physiological, safety, belonging and love, self-esteem, and self-actualization.



In Rogers’s theory, the lack of harmony that results when a person’s symbolized experiences do not represent the actual experiences.


interpretative response

In Rogers’s theory, a response that seeks to interpret a speaker’s problem or tell how the speaker feels about it.



Maslow’s term for growth tendencies within the organism.



Maslow’s term for the reduction of tension by satisfying deficit states or lacks.


nondirective therapy

Rogers’s term for therapies whose course is primarily determined by the patient.


organismic valuing process

In Rogers’s theory, a subconscious natural phenomenon that guides an individual toward productive growth experiences.


peak experience

In Maslow’s theory, an intensified experience in which there is a loss of self or transcendence of self.



In positive psychology, five building blocks of a fulfilling life: Positive emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment.


person-centered psychotherapy

The most recent name for Rogers’s method of psychotherapy.


phenomenal field

In Rogers’s theory, the total sum of experiences an organism has.



The study of phenomena or appearances.


positive regard

In Rogers’s theory, being loved and accepted for who one is.


positive self-regard

In Rogers’s theory, viewing the self favorably and with acceptance.


probing response

In Rogers’s theory, a response that seeks further information.


Q-sort technique

A card-sorting technique employed by Rogers for studying the self-concept.


reassuring response

In Rogers’s theory, a response that attempts to soothe feelings.


reconstructive (or intensive) psychotherapy

Therapeutic methods that seek to remove defenses and reorganize the basic personality structure.


reflective response

In Rogers’s theory, a response that seeks to capture the underlying feeling expressed.



In the theories of Rogers and Maslow, a dynamic within the organism leading it to actualize, fulfill, and enhance its inherent potentialities.



In Rogers’s theory, a portion of the phenomenal field that has become differentiated and is composed of perceptions and values of “I” or “me.”


supportive psychotherapy

Therapeutic measures that seek to strengthen adaptive instincts and defenses without necessarily tampering with the underlying personality structure.


transpersonal psychology

A branch of psychology that studies the transcendent or spiritual dimensions of persons.


unconditional positive regard

In Rogers’s theory, positive regard that is not contingent on any specific behaviors.


Explain why Maslow has been called the father of humanistic psychology

He criticized psychoanalysis for being pessimistic and negative, and behaviour and learning theories for being mechanistic


Distinguish between motivation, metamotivation, D-needs, and B-needs, and indicate the importance of these dimensions

Maslow distinguished between motivation and metamotivation which entail D-needs and B-needs, respectively. Motivation and the D-needs take precedence over metamotivation and the B-needs


Describe the main needs in Maslow's heirarchy of needs

Includes psychological, safety, belonging and love, self esteem, and self-actualization


Explain how Maslow defined and studied self-actualized persons, identify the key dimensions of self-actualized persons, and explain what peak experience is.

They fulfill themselves and do the best they are capable of doing. Key characteristics are awareness, honesty, freedom, and trust. Peak experience entails a transcendence of self


Describe research in Maslow's theory

Hierarchy of needs informs Deci and Ryan's self determination theory and continues to provoke other research and application.


Describe some criticisms of Maslow's portrait of the self-actualized person

Some critics suggest that picture of self-actualized person is simplistic and neglects the hard work that is involved in growth and development. Others suggest it is based on American values and a Western male paradigm of individual achievement.


Evaluate Maslow's theory from the viewpoint of philosophy, science, and art

Points in a direction away from pure science. His work underscores the fact that rigorous scientific procedures may not encompass or permit research into important human questions.


Explain the following concepts in Roger's theory: phenomenal field, actualization, organism, and self. Explain how emotions affect the process of self-actualization.

His humanist theory is influenced by phenomenology, which emphasizes that what is important is not an object or event in itself but how it is perceived. In psychology this means an emphasis on human awareness and the conviction that the best vantage point for understanding an individual is that of the individual themselves. The phenomenal field is the total sum of experiences an organism has; the organism is the individual as a process; the self is a concept of who one is. Self-actualization is the dynamic within the organism leading it to actualize, fulfill and enhance its potentials. Emotions accompany and facilitate the process of actualization. Fully experiencing emotions facilitates growth, and repression is unnecessary.


Explain what Rogers means by congruence and incongruence and describe the effect of denial and distortion

Congruence exists when a person's symbolized experiences reflect actual experiences. The pressure of denial or distortion in the symbolization leads to incongruence.


Discuss what Rogers meant by unconditional and conditional positive regard, and explain their roles in influencing personality development

The young child has a strong need for positive regard. Ideally, positive regard is unconditional. If it is contingent on specific behaviours, it is conditional positive regard and posits conditions of worth that may lead a child to introject the values of others and experience incongruence.


Describe the 3 therapist attitudes that Rogers believed would lead to client change

Rogers is best know for person-centred therapy. The 3 attitudes on the part of the therapist that he thought were necessary and sufficient for change are: empathy, acceptance, and genuineness


Identify Roger's five responses to emotional communications

Evaluative, interpretative, reassuring, probing, and reflective responses. Each has different effects. Rogers encouraged the cultivation of reflective responses


Discuss person-centred psychotherapy, describing its supportive character, changes in Roger's conception of it, and efforts at empirical validation.

Supportive rather than reconstructive. In his later writings Rogers stressed the need for the therapist to be present as a person in the relationship and showed more interest in group counselling and social change. He encourages the empirical test of his theories and developed methods of assessing and predicting therapeutic change.


Evaluate Roger's theory from the viewpoints of philosophy, science, and art

Rogers was very careful to distinguish between his philosophical assumptions and his scientific hypothesis. He criticized Skinner's view of science and his goal of controlling human nature rather than increasing human freedom, responsibility, and spontaneity. He pointed out that technology may be used to foster many different goals. His position has been criticized for its reliance on simplistic phenomenology and for being highly culture-bound. It has been praised for increasing understanding of interpersonal relationships. Rogers careful empirical study of the therapeutic process has shed considerable light on the phenomenon of therapy and counselling.


Describe the focus of positive psychology

seeks to study and understand the complex positive behaviour of people in order to emphasize the systematic building and amplifying of human strengths and virtues


Discuss the topics of interest in transpersonal psychology

Concerned with those states and processes in which people experience a deeper or wider sense of who they are and a sense of greater connectedness with others, mature, and a 'spiritual' dimension.