Hutchinson: Cardiothoracic Cavity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hutchinson: Cardiothoracic Cavity Deck (40):
1

What are the regions and sub regions of the mediastinum?

1. Superior Mediastinum (the danger space!)2. Inferior mediastinum a. anterior (thymus) b. middle (heart) c. posterior (Vessels, nerves, lymphatics etc...)

2

Where does the greater splanchnic nerve originate?

Lateral horn of T5-T9

3

Where does the splanchnic nerve synapse?

NOT in the T5-T9. They course down to abdomen and synapse with pre-aortic ganglia.

4

Where does the Lesser splanchnic nerve originate?

Lateral horn of T10-T11

5

Where does the least splanchnic nerve originate?

Lateral horn of T12

6

At what level of the spinal column does the azygos vein appear?

T4

7

Which part of the body is drained into the thoracic lymphatic duct?

All the body except right side of head, neck, chest and arm, which are drained by the right lymphatic duct.

8

At what vertebral level does the esophagus travel through the diaphragm?

T10

9

At what vertebral area does the trachea bifurcate?

T4

10

The right common carotid artery and the Right subclavian artery come together from what artery?

Brachiocephalic trunk

11

What is the serous membrane called on the outermost layer of the pericardial sac?

Fibrous pericardium

12

What is the serous membrane called on the innermost layer of the pericardial sac?

serous pericardium

13

The serous pericardium is composed of three layers. What are they?

From superficial to deep:1. Serous parietal pericardium2. Pericardial space3. Serous visceral pericardium

14

What is the other name for the right AV valve?

Tricuspid valve

15

What are the two other names for the Left AV valve?

Mitral valve or Bicuspid valve

16

What are the two valves connected to the left ventricle?

Aortic valve and Bicuspid valve

17

What two valves are connected to the right ventricle?

Pulmonary valve and tricuspid valve

18

What is the most anterior chamber of the heart?

right ventricle

19

What is the most medial chamber of the heart

Right atrium

20

What is the most posterior border of the heart?

Left atrium

21

What is the most lateral chamber of the heart?

Left ventricle

22

Which valves have chord tendinae and papillary muscles and which ones do not?

The AV valves have them and the aortic and pulmonary valves do not.

23

What is systole

Ventricular contraction

24

What is diastole?

Ventricular relaxation

25

What makes the LUB sound?

When the ventricles contract the AV valves close.

26

What makes the DUB sound?

When the ventricles relax, the pulmonary and aortic valves close passively by the returning pressure of blood in the exiting vessels.

27

Where do you place the stethoscope to auscultate the heart chambers?

by the sternal angle in between ribs 2 and 3. To the right thorax is the spot for aortic valve, the left is the pulmonary valve. in between 5 and 6 to the left is tricuspid valves and further left is the bicuspid valve. ALL PHYSICIANS TAKE BENJAMINS

28

Which coronary artery divides the right atrium from the right ventricle?

The right coronary artery

29

What arteries branch from the right coronary artery?

Right marginal artery and sometimes the posterior descending artery

30

If the PDA branches from the RCA, the heart is classified as

Right dominant

31

If the PDA branches from the LCA the heart is classified as...

Left dominant

32

What artery divides the left ventricle from the left atrium?

Left coronary artery

33

Which arteries branch off the LCA?

Left anterior descending artery or the anterior inter ventricular artery as well as the Left circumflex artery

34

How does the sympathetic innervation affect the coronary arteries?

It causes vasodilation

35

How does parasympathetic innervation affect the coronary arteries?

Vasoconstriction

36

What is the major cardia vein?

Coronary sinus

37

What feeds into the coronary sinus?

middle cardiac vein and the great cardiac vein

38

Which spinal levels innervate the heart sympathetically?

T1-T4

39

Which spinal nerves innervate the heart?

Cervical and thoracic sympathetic nerve?

40

What nerve innervates the heart paraympathetically?

Vagus nerve