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Flashcards in Hydrosphere Deck (117):
1

The hydrological cycle is the

continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

2

The Hydrological cycle is what type of system

A closed system

3

Evaporation is the process of

solar energy powering the conversion of water from a liquid to a gas.

4

Condensation is the the process of

water changing from a vapour to a liquid.

5

Precipiation is

rain,snow,hail and sleet

6

Run-off is the movement of

water over the Earth's surface

7

Interception is precipitation stored on

leaves and branches of vegetation

8

Transpiration is when water vapour is

released through the stomata in plant leaves

9

Groundwater is when water flows

horizontally through the rock into the river

10

Percolation is when water flows

vertically through the soil and rocks

11

Throughflow is when water flows

horizontally through the soil into the river

12

Source is the area in which a river

begins

13

Mouth is where a river ends its

journey, flowing into the sea or lake

14

A tributary is a small river that

joins a larger river

15

A confluence is the point at which

two river join

16

Watershed is the boundary between two

drainage basins marked by a ridge of high land

17

A drainage basin is the area which is

drained by a river and its tributaries

18

Drainage Density is the total length of all

the streams in the basin divided by the total area of the basin

19

Drainage Basin as a system: Inputs

Precipitation

20

Drainage Basin as a system: Stores

  • Interception
  • Surface water storage (lake)
  • Soil Water storage
  • Groundwater storage

21

Drainage Basin as a system: Transfers

  • Surface runoff (stream)
  • Infiltration
  • Throughflow
  • Percolation
  • Groundwater flow

22

Drainage Basin as a system: Outputs

  • River runoff
  • Evaporation
  • Transpiration

23

How do trees reduce flooding?

  • Trees intercept the rain
  • Evapotranspiration reduces the amount of water that reaches the river
  • Water is taken through the roots and so less water enters the river

24

The permeability of rocks is determined by

the sizes of pores between the rock particles.

25

If the rock has small pores the water

cannnot easily infiltrate into the rock and this means that the rock is imperable

26

If the rock has large pores

water can easily infiltrate and thus the rock is permeable

27

Draw the hydrological cycle

A image thumb
28

Radial drainage happens when

 

streams flow down from a central high point such as a mountain top

29

What type of drainage pattern is this?

 

Q image thumb

Radial drainage pattern

30

If a river's pattern is like the branches of a tree it is called a

 

denritic drainage pattern

31

What type of drainage pattern is this?

Q image thumb

It is a dendritic drainage pattern

32

A parallel drainage pattern happens when

streams flow in valleys that are parallel to one another.

33

What type of drainage pattern is this?

Q image thumb

Parallel drainage pattern

34

Trellis drainage is when streams flow in

channels that are parallel to each other and tributaries join the streams at right angles

35

What type of drainage pattern is this?

Q image thumb

Trellis drainage pattern

36

Attrition is when boulders and rocks and other material in the river bed

collide with each other and break up into smaller more rounded particles

37

Corrasion also known as

abrasion

38

Corrasions (abrasion) is when material being transported rubs against the

banks and beds of the river. As a result river beds are deepened when almost static boulders are swivelled round and drill out holes. Over time the holes are joined together and the bed is lowered.

39

Corrosion also known  as

solution

40

Corrosion is when the natural acid in rain

dissolves rocks such as limestone

41

Hydraulic action is when the sheer force of the river

dislodges particles from the banks and bed of the river

42

Traction is when large particles like pebbles and boulders

roll and slide along the river bed

43

Saltation is when large particles such as gravel and coarse sand are lifted and

dropped along the river so they bounce along the river bed in a series of 'jumps'

44

Suspension is when smaller particles such as clay,silt and fine sand are

carried along without contact with the river bed. Materials carried in suspension usually forms the greatest part of the total river bedload

45

Solution is when dissolved materials contaning minerals like calcium and

sodium are carried in the water

46

V-Shaped Valleys: (1) When a river erodes vertically by

hydraulic action and corrasion

47

V-Shaped Valleys: (2) As the river cuts down the bed the sides of the river are eroded by

 

weathering

48

V-Shaped Valleys: (3) Weathering, when the river banks are broken up into

loose soil and rock

49

V-Shaped Valleys: (4) Loose material now starts to move down the slope because of

gravity and rainwater

50

V-Shaped Valleys: (5) The river moves this loose material away by

 

traction and saltation

51

V-Shaped Valleys: (6) The loose material is further eroded as it bounces and

 

scrapes along the river bed by corrasion and attrition

52

Waterfall: (1) Water flows over resistant rock and

 

less resistant rock

53

Waterfall: (2) The water ______ at the junction of the resistnat and less resistant rock

swirls

54

Waterfall: (3) The less resistant rock is eroded by

corrosion and hydrualic action

55

Waterfall: (4) Over time the less-resistant rock is eroded so much that a resistant rock

 

overhang is created

56

Waterfall: (5) Eventually the overhang collapses causing the waterfall to

 

move upstream

57

Waterfall: (6) A deep plunge pool is formed by hydraulic action and corrosion as a result of

 

resistant rock falling into the pool

58

As the waterfall moves upstream it creates a

gorge

59

Meander: (1) A river may have straight banks so the river

flows from one bank to another

60

Meander: (2)  ____ and _____ are created from the river moving from one bank to another

 

Pools and riffles

61

Meander: (3) A pool is a slightly depper part of the river with _____ moving water

slower

62

Meander: (4) Riffle is a shallower part of a river with _____ moving water

faster

63

Meander: (5) This movement begins the formation of a bend in the river called a

 

meander

64

Meander: (6) Once the meander is formed the flow of water is

 

helicoidal

65

Meander: (7) Helicodial flow results in the flow of water at the outer bend to

 

sink down eroding the river cliff

66

Meander: (8) It then transports material across the bed and

 

deposits it on the slip off slope

67

Meander: (9) Flow at the outer bank is faster causing

 

corrasion and hydraulic action

68

Meander: (10) The faster flow at the outer bank erodes the

river cliff

69

Meander: (11) The deposition on the inner bank is larger because of the

 

slower flow of the river

70

Meander: (12) A slip off slope is formed which over time becomes a

 

river beach

71

Ox-bow Lake: (1) Develops after a

 

meander has formed

72

Ox-bow Lake: (2) The river continues to erode at the outer banks of the meander until the neck of land between them becomes

 

veyr narrow

73

Ox-bow Lake: (3) During a flow when the river has more energy it

 

cuts through the neck and makes a new straighter channel

74

Ox-bow Lake: (4) The meander becomes cut off from the new course of the river and what is left is an

 

ox-bow lake

75

Ox-bow Lake: (5) Without a source of water it

 

soon dries up

76

Levees: (1) During flooding the river speed is reduced so the largest debris is depositied

 

near to the river channel

77

Levees: (2) The large debris builds up with repeated flooding and forms

 

a levee

78

Levees: (3) Occasionally levees act as natural embankment and are often

 

strengthened by man as part of flood prevention measures

79

Braiding: (1) Braiding occurs in areas of floow plain with a

 

wide shallow river or ath the mouth of the river as a delta

80

Braiding: (2) Braiding occurs when a river becomes

overloaded with sediment and can't carry its load so deposits

81

Braiding: (3) As the channel silts up the river spills around the blockage and

 

seperate channels are formed

82

Braiding: (4) When the river splits into several channels they are called

 

distributaries

83

Braiding: (5) If vegetation is established the new islands formed called _____ can become permanent

 

eyots

84

Delta: (1) Deltas are found at the

 

mouth or a river

85

Delta: (2) At this point the river is carrying too much load so ______ occurs

 

deposition

86

Delta: (3) The top of the delta is a fairly flat surface. This is where the

 

largest load is dropped

87

Delta: (4) The silt is dropped to form a steep slope on the 

 

 

edge of the delta

88

When describing a river you should describe:

 

1. Direction of flow

2. WIdth of river

3. Nature of course (meadering or straight)

4. Features (waterfall, meander)

5. Any tributaries joining it

6. Does it flow into the sea (tidal)

89

When describing a valley describe:

 

1. If its v shaped (contour lines) or U shaped(white)

2. 6 figure grid reference

3. Speed of flow

4. Floodplain?

5. Natural or has man altered it?

 

 

90

Discharge - The amount of water

 

passing a certain point at a certain time measured in cubic metres per second

91

Velocity - The speed of the water

 

within the river measured in metres per second

92

Volume - The amount of

 

water in the river system

93

Hydrographs: The purple bubble indicates the

 

Q image thumb

Basin Lag Time

94

Hydrographs: The red bubble indicates

 

Q image thumb

Peak Flow

95

Hydrographs: The black bubble indcates the

 

Q image thumb

Recession Limb

96

Hydrographs: The orange bubble indicates

 

Q image thumb

overland flow

97

Hydrograph: The green bubble indicates the

 

Q image thumb

Throughflow

98

Hydrograph: The blue bubble indicates

Q image thumb

The Base Flow

99

Hydrograph: The grey bubble indcates the

Q image thumb

Rising Limb

100

When describing a storm hydrograph, you need to refer to:

 

  • Rising Limb
  • Falling Limb
  • Lag Time
  • Rainfall Intensity
  • Peak flow compared to base flow
  • Recovery rate

101

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: Large basins receive more precipitation than small basins so therefore have

 

larger runoff

102

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: Larger size basins means longer lag time as the water

 

has a longer distance to travel to reach the main river

103

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: Elongated base shape will produce a lower peak flow and

 

longer tag time than a circular one of the same size

104

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: The steeper the slopes the

 

faster the water flows overland into rivers making the rising limb steeper

105

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: If land is more gently sloping water flows over it

 

more slowly and is therefore more likely to infiltrate the soil

106

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: Throughflow is slower than overland flow so the resulting rising limb will be

 

less steep

107

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: Vegetation in a river basin will slow  the flow of overland flow into rivers due to

 

interception

108

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: Heavy Vegetation results in a

 

less steep rising limb with a longer lag time

109

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: Also heavy vegetation will result in a lower peak flow because

 

 

the plants will absorb some of the rain

110

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: Permeable rock results in 

 

rapid infiltration and little over land flow

111

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: The more infiltration occurs the

 

longer the lag time and the shallower rising limb

112

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: Urbanisation results in impermeable surfaces which results in a

 

steep rising limb and shortening lag time

113

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: Vegetation intercepts the precipitation creating a

 

shallow rising limb and lengthening the time lag

114

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: A higher density (lots of tributaries) will allow

 

rapid over land flow and so the rising limb will be steeper

115

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: Short intense rainstorms can produce

rapid over land flow and steep rising limb

116

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: Snow on the ground can act as a store producing a

 

longer lag time and shallow rising limb.

117

Factors Influencing Storm Hydrographs: High spring tides can block the normal exit for water therefore extending the

 

time the river basin takes to return to base flow