Flashcards in Hyper,meta,dys & Neoplasia Deck (18):
What is hyperplasia? Example?
When cell populations increase in cell numbers. E.g: stem cells in mamillary glands
What is involution?
Decrease in cell number (the oposite of hyperplasia)
What is hypertrophy?
Cells increase their size.
What is atrophy?
Cells decrease in size, or goes back to normal after hypertrophy.
When is atrophy considered pathological?
When cells become unusually small (e.g: due to inactivity)
What is metaplasia?
When cells re-differentiate into another, but stable arrangement.
Name a example where metaplasia happens.
Smoking. In the reapiratory trackt: pseudostratified ciliated collumnar epithelium turns into stratified squamous epithelium.
What is dysplasia?
Increased cell division, where the cells don't mature completly.
What is dysplasia associated with?
Chronic irritation. Inflammatory response.
What can dysplasia turn into (in some cases)?
What is neoplsia?
Cells that multiply due to stimuli that changes the genetic material, so they won't respond to usual signals.
What is the clinical term given to neoplasia?
What is benign neoplasm?
When the cell population grows locally with defined edges.
What is malignant neoplasm?
When the cell population grows into surounding tissue, infiltrating and pushing it away.
What is well-differentiated malignant neoplasm?
When the cells look like normal cells
What is poorly differentiated malignant neoplasm?
When the cells look less like normal cells, and behave differently
What is anaplastic malignant neoplasm?
When the cells are poorly differentiated, and look like immature cells.