Hypnotics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hypnotics Deck (11):
1

Classes of drugs used as hypnotics

-BZDs, BZD-R agonists, antihistamine, melatonin-R agonists

2

BZDs used as hypnotics

Flurazapam, Temazepam, Triazolam

3

Flurazapam, Temazepam, Triazolam

-BZDs used as hypnotics
-decrease slow wave and REM sleep and increase stage 1 and 2
-USE: insomnia
-AE: daytime sedation is common particularly with those agents that have long-acting active metabolites
-tolerance can lead to patient increasing dose
-anterograde amnesia

4

Non-BZDs used as hypnotics

Zolpidem
Zaleplon
Eszopiclone

They work as well as BZDs without the disruption of sleep architecture

5

Zolpidem

-BZD-1-R agonist
-USE: insomnia
-AE: ataxia, nightmares, headache, confusion

6

Zaleplon

-non-BZD, BZD-R agonist
-shorter half life than zolipidem so can be taken when patient wakes up in the middle of the night
-USE: insomnia
-AE: ataxia, nightmares, headache, confusion

7

Eszopiclone

-non-BZD, BZD-R agonist
-USE: insomnia
-unlike the other meds, first to be approved for long-term use

8

Antihistamine used as hypnotic

Diphendydramine

9

Diphendydramine

-an antihistamine, works by blocking H-1 receptors and cholinergic muscarinic receptors in the CNS
-used in many over the counter sleep aids

10

Melatonin agonist

-Remelton

11

Remelton

-Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and is thought to be involved in the regulation of the body’s biological clock
-Mech: Remelton activates melatonin 1 and 2 receptors
-USE: to treat jet lag and insomnia in shift-change workers
-available over the counter
- Remelton requires a prescription but is not a controlled substance
-AE: relatively safe but can cause fatigue and lethargy