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Flashcards in I/O Psych Deck (21):

Personal Psychology

A branch of I/O Psych that is concerned with activities and issues related to the assessment, selection, placement, and training of new and current employees


Job Analysis

A systematic method for collecting information needed to describe job requirements. Clarifies requirements of the job. Results serve as:
- basis for developing criterion measures
- facilitates workforce planning and training design
- assistance in decisions about job redesign
- identifying causes of accidents and safety-related problems


Methods of Job Analysis

Job-Oriented Methods
Worker-Oriented Methods


Job-Oriented Methods of Job Analysis

Provide information about characteristics of the tasks that are performed on the job


Worker-Oriented Methods of Job Analysis

provide information about the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics ("KSAOs")that a worker needs to perform the job successfully
Example: Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)


Job Evaluation

Determines the worth of jobs in order to set wages and salaries. Establish comparable worth. Techniques range from judgmental to statistical. Identifies compensable factors such as:
- skills and education required
- degree of autonomy and responsibility
- consequences of errors


Comparable Worth

Ensuring that people who are performing comparable work receive comparable pay using job evaluations.
- The same job evaluation technique should be used (typically a point system) for all jobs within an organization so wages are determined by a job's inherent value rather than a job title or who performs a job. (Primarily applied to gender differences, but critics believe perpetuated gender discrimination)


Criterion Measures

Used to assess employee performance


Types of Criterion Measures



Objective Criterion Measures

Direct measures that include quantitative measure of production (units produced, sold, or rejected, also types of personal data such as accidents, absenteeism, tardiness, and salary and promotion history).
Can be biased by situational factors (i.e. differences in equipment, territory, or supplies).


Subjective Criterion Measures

Performance assessment techniques in the form of ratings that reflect the judgement of the rater. Generally the most frequently used.
Categorized as Relative or Absolute


Characteristics of Criterion Measures

Ultimate vs Actual Criterion


Ultimate vs Actual Criterion
(Characteristics of Criterion Measures)

Ultimate: conceptual or theoretical; refers to an accurate and complete measure of performance (i.e. therapist "provides effective therapeutic service")
Actual: the way that performance is actually measured (i.e. a client survey of satisfaction with therapy)


(Characteristics of Criterion Measures)

The actual criterion's construct validity (i.e. the degree to which it measures the ultimate criterion)


(Characteristics of Criterion Measures)

The degree to which an actual criterion does NOT measure all aspects of the ultimate criterion and is one of the factors that limits criterion relevance.


** Contamination
(Characteristics of Criterion Measures)
Criterion Contamination

Factor that limits relevance and occurs when an actual criterion assess factors other than those it was designed to measure.
For example: once source of Criterion Contamination occurs when a rater's knowledge of an employee's predictor performance biases how the rater rates the employee on the criterion.


Relative Techniques
(Subjective Criterion Measure)

Require rater to compare the performance of two or more employees.


Absoute Techniques
(Subjective Criterion Measure)

Provide information on a ratee's performance without reference or comparison to other employees


Rating Techniques

Paired Comparison (R)
Forced Distribution (R)
Critical Incident Technique (A)
Forced Choice Rating Scale (A)
Graphic Rating Scale (A)
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) (A)


Paired Comparison

A relative rating technique. The rater compares each ratee with every-other ratee in pairs on one or more dimensions of job performance. Disadvantage: it becomes increasingly cumbersome to use as the number of rates increases.


Forced Distribution

A relative rating technique. Similar to "grading on a curve".