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Flashcards in i p c Deck (144):
1

Inflammable air

Hydrogen

2

Production of ammonia

Haber process

3

Alkaline water components

Na2SO4, MgSO4, NaHCO3

4

Saline/ purgative water components

Na2SO4, MgSO4, NaCl

5

1. Soft water does not contain...
2. Temporary hardness contains...
3 Permanent hardness contains...

1. Ca and Mg ions
2. Ca and Mg bicarbonates
3. Ca and Mg sulfates and chlorides

6

Water obtained by distillation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis

Potable water

7

Water used as ingredient of official preparations and in tests and assays

Purified water

8

Most abundant element in the universe

Hydrogen

9

3rd most abundant element in earth's crust

Aluminum

10

Caesium, Actium K

Francium

11

Least electronegative element

Francium

12

Produced by Linde method, Lane process and Messerschmidt process

Hydrogen

13

Solvent for NMR studies

D2O; heavy water

14

Cause of Hidenburg disaster

Hydrogen

15

1. Temporary hardness removed by...
2. Permanent hardness removed by...

1. Boiling, addition of lime
2. Ion exchange resins

16

Prolonged use of hydrogen peroxide

Hypertrophied filiform papillae; hairy tongue syndrome

17

Oxygenated acid

Hydrogen peroxide

18

Hydrogen peroxide is treatment for...

Vincent's stomatitis (trenchmouth) as mouthwash

19

% w/v:
1. 10 volume H2O2
2. 20 volume H2O2
3. H2O2 topical solution, USP

1. 3%
2. 6%
3. 3%

20

Lithium MOA

1. X NE release, inc NE metab, inc NE, 5-HT reuptake
2. IP X Inositol -> PIP2
3.G protein receptor desensitization

21

Eskalith, Lithase, Quilonium-R

Lithium carbonate

22

Versene

Calcium disodium edetate

23

1. Principal extracellular cations/ anions
2. Principal intracellular cations/ anions

1. Extracellular: (+) sodium, calcium; (-) chloride, bicarbonate
2. Intracellular: (+) potassium, magnesium; (-) dibasic phosphate

24

Components of Fleet enema

Monobasic and dibasic sodium phosphate

25

1. ... with Methenamine is treatment for cystitis
2. ... decoction is also for cystitis

1. Monobasic sodium phosphate
2. Hairs of corn

26

Phosphate of soda; sodium phosphate

Dibasic sodium phosphate

27

Pharmaceutical necessity used in solutions for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

Sodium acetate

28

Chemical formula of calcium disodium edetate

CaNa2C10H12O8N2

29

Antidote for zinc poisoning

Sodium bicarbonate

30

4 commonly used antacids

1. Sodium bicarbonate
2. Calcium carbonate
3. Magnesium hydroxide
4. Aluminum hydroxide

31

Alka-Seltzer

Sodium bicarbonate

32

Amphojel

Aluminum hydroxide

33

Chemical formula of sodium borate

Na2B4O7
*Sodium perborate: NaBO3

34

Uses of sodium borate

1. Alkalinizing agent
2. Eyewash buffer
*Weakly bacteriostatic

35

Soda ash

Anhydrous sodium carbonate
*Dihydrate: trona
*Decahydrate: soda crystals, washing soda, sal soda

36

Trona

Dihydrate sodium carbonate
*Monohydrate: soda ash
*Decahydrate: soda crystals, washing soda, sal soda

37

Soda crystals

Decahydrate sodium carbonate
*Monohydrate: soda ash
*Dihydrate: trona
*Decahydrate: soda crystals, washing soda, sal soda

38

Sal soda

Decahydrate sodium carbonate
*Monohydrate: soda ash
*Dihydrate: trona
*Decahydrate: soda crystals, washing soda, sal soda

39

Washing soda

Decahydrate sodium carbonate
*Monohydrate: soda ash
*Dihydrate: trona
*Decahydrate: soda crystals, washing soda, sal soda

40

1. Component's of Benedict's reagent
2. Components of Fehling's reagent

1. CuSO4, sodium citrate, sodium carbonate
2. Fehling's A: CuSO4; Fehling's B: Rochelle's salt, sodium hydroxide

41

Isotonic solution of 3 chlorides

Ringer's solution

42

Hartmann's solution

Lactated ringer's solution

43

Components of ORS

NaCl, KCl, sodium citrate, glucose

44

Chemical formula of sodium citrate

Na3C6H5O7
*Sodium gluconate: NaC6H11O6

45

In vitro anticoagulant; in vivo coagulant

Sodium citrate

46

Excessive oral citrate salts can have ... effect

Laxative

47

Protoplasmic poison

HF

48

Anidote for HF

Calcium gluconate

49

Non-pharmaceutical uses of sodium fluoride

Rodenticide, insecticide
*Fluoride ion is toxic

50

Chemical formula of sodium monofluorophosphate

Na2FPO3

51

Best antidote for mercuric chloride poisoning

Sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate

52

Lye

Sodium hydroxide

53

Soft soap vs hard soap

1. Soft soap: KOH + vegetable oil
2. Hard soap: NaOH + vegetable oil

54

Pharmaceutical necessity in preparation of glycerin suppositories

Sodium hydroxide

55

Toxicity of sodium hydroxide ingestion

Liquefaction/ saponification necrosis
*Strong acids: coagulative necrosis

56

Calx sodica

Soda lime
*NaOH.Ca(OH)2

57

Chemical formula of soda lime

NaOH.Ca(OH)2

58

Use of soda lime

Carbon dioxide absorber for anesthesia machines, oxygen therapy, metabolic tests

59

Sodium hypophosphite: OA/RA?

RA
*NaHPO2

60

Chemical formula of sodium hypophosphite

NaHPO2

61

Chemical formula of:
1. Hypochlorite
2. Chlorite
3. Chlorate
4. Perchlorate

1. ClO-
2. (ClO2)-
3. (ClO3)-
4. (ClO4)-

62

Dakin's solution

4-6% NaOCl
*Labarraque's: 2.5% (disinfectant)
*Modified Dakin's: 0.45-0.5% (antiseptic)
*NaOCl topical solution: 0.023% (antiseptic)

63

Hypothyroidism in adults

Myxedema
*Cretinism in children

64

Sodium pyrosulfite

Sodium metabisulfite

65

Chemical formula of sodium metabisulfite

Na2S2O5
*Bisulfite: HSO3-
*Sulfite: (SO3)2-

66

Uses of sodium metabisulfite

1. Water-soluble antioxidant (acidic solution; vitamin C, epinephrine)
2. Antimicrobial
3. Water-soluble analogs (menadione sodium bisulfite)

67

Drawback of sulfites and SO2

Hypersensitivity

68

Chile saltpeter

Sodium nitrate
*Potassium nitrate: saltpeter, salitre, salt prunelle

69

Salt prunelle

Potassium nitrate
*Sodium nitrate: chile saltpeter
*Potassium nitrate: saltpeter, salitre, salt prunelle

70

Oldest known inorganic fertilizer

Sodium nitrate
*Also a preservative

71

Guggenheim process

Sodium nitrate

72

Toxicity of sodium nitrite and antidote

1. Methemoglobinemia
2. Methylene blue
*Nitrites are also carcinogenic (nitrosamines)

73

Nitrite: OA/RA?

RA

74

Uses of sodium nitrite

1. Vasodilator
2. Cyanide poisoning antidote
3. Curing meats and fish (color, flavor, preservation)
*Sodium nitrate: fertilizer, preservative
*Potassium nitrite: meat preservative, tooth-dessensitizing agent

75

DOC hypertensive crisis

Sodium nitroprusside

76

Chemical formula of sodium nitroprusside

Na2[Fe(CN)5NO].2H2O

77

Chemical formula of sodium perborate

NaBO3
*Sodium borate: Na2B4O7

78

Graham's salt
*Uses?

Sodium polymetaphosphate; Calgon
*Water-softener, detergent

79

Calgon

Sodium polymetaphosphate; Graham's salt

80

Uses of sodium polymetaphosphate

Water-softener, detergent
*Graham's salt, Calgon

81

Kayexalate

Sodium polystryene sulfonate
*Cation exchange resin for hyperkalemia
*vs sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate

82

Use of sodium polystryene sulfonate

Cation exchange resin for hyperkalemia
*Kayexalate
*Cellulose sodium phosphate: cation exchange resin for calcium

83

Sal seginette

Sodium potassium tartrate
*Rochelle salt
*Potassium bitartrate: cream of tartar, creamor, argol

84

Chemical formula of sodium potassium tartrate

NaKC4H4O6.H2O
*Bitartrate: HC6H4O6

85

Uses of sodium potassium tartrate and potassium bitartrate

1. Sodium potassium tartrate: saline laxative, acidity regulator in food
2. Potassium bitartrate: saline laxative, ingredient on baking powder to raise dough

86

Glauber's salt

Sodium sulfate (.10H2O); sal mirabile

87

Sal mirabile

Sodium sulfate (.10H2O)

88

Primary standard for Karl Fischer Reagent

Sodium tartrate

89

Methods of water content determination

1. Method I: titrimetric, KFR
2. Method II: azeotropic, toluene distillation
3. Method III: gravimetric

90

Uses of sodium thiocyanate and sodium thiosulfate

1. Thiocyanate: hypotensive agent, contact lens cleaners, antioxidant synergist
2. Thiosulfate: cyanide poisoning antidote, titration VS, removal of chlorine and iodine stains

91

Hypochlor

Sodium thiosulfate; photographer's hypo; hypo

92

Sodium thiosulfate is
1. Decomposed by acids to...
2. Decomposed by bases to...
3. Prone to ...

1. Sulfur [+ Na2CO3]
2. Sulfate
3. Bacterial decomposition

93

S/Sx of hypokalemia and hyperkalemia

1. Hypokalemia: muscle weakness/ paralysis
2. Hyperkalemia: cardiac arrest

94

Sorensen's potassium phosphate

Monobasic potassium phosphate

95

Tawas

Potassium/ ammonium alum
*True tawas: potassium alum
*Uses: astringent, styptic, antiperspirant, deodorant

96

Carbonating agent for Magnesium citrate oral solution

Potassium bicarbonate

97

Occurs in acidulous fruits (grapes)

Potassium bitartrate

98

Only insoluble salt of potassium

Potassium bitartrate

99

Oldest antiseizure agent

Potassium bromide
*Also pellets for IR

100

1. Salt of tartar
2. Cream of tartar

1. Potassium carbonate; potash; pearl ash; salt of wormwood
2. Potassium bitartrate; argol; creamor

101

Salt of wormwood

Potassium carbonate; potash; pearl ash; salt of tartar

102

Components of Darrow's solution

NaCl, KCl, sodium lactate

103

Acalka

Potassium citrate

104

Use of KOH in titrimetry

Koettsdorfer number/ saponification value

105

DOC for cutaneous lymphatic sporotrichosis

KISS 1g/mL

106

1. Potassium iodide treats hypo/hyperthyroidism?
2. Potassium iodide treats hypo/hyperthyroidism?

1. Hyperthyroidism
2. Hyperthyroidism; also blocking agent for I-131

107

Toxicity of KI

Iodism
*S/Sx: lacrimation, salivation, skin eruption, weakness

108

Tooth-desensitizing agents (Sensodyne)

Potassium nitrate, strontium chloride

109

Potassium permanganate colors by transmitted and reflected light

1. Transmitted: dark purple-black
2. Reflected: blue metallic luster

110

Potassium permanganate endpoint in titrimetry

Pink color persists for 15-30s

111

Mn oxidation states and colors
1. +7
2. +6
3. +4
4. +2

1. +7: (MnO4)-, permanganate, purple
2. +6: (MnO4)2-, manganate, green, unstable (disproportionation)
3. +4: MnO2, brown
4. +2: MnS, salmon pink

112

Use of potassium sorbate

Preservative (against yeasts and molds)
*Ineffective above pH 6.5

113

Hepar sulfuris

Sulfurated potash; liver of sulfur; potassa sulfurata
*K polysulfide + K thiosulfate

114

1. Odor of sulfurated potash
2. Color of sulfurated potash

1. Hydrogen sulfide
2. Liver brown (greenish yellow upon air exposure)

115

1. Source of sulfide in White lotion
2. Use of White lotion

1. Sulfurated potash
*Sulfurated potash + ZnSO4 -> ZnS
2. Anti-psoriasis, mild antimicrobial and anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, astringent, protective

116

Pseudo-alkali metal ion

Ammonium

117

General uses of ammonium compounds (3)

1. Osmotic diuretic
2. Expectorant
3. Buffer component (ammonium acetate, ammonium phosphate)

118

Concentrations of
1. Household ammonia
2. Strong ammonia solution
3. Ammonia water

1. Household ammonia: 10%
2. Strong ammonia solution: 27-31%
3. Ammonia water: 9.5-10.5%

119

16 degrees Baume ammonia

Household ammonia

120

1. Hartshorn
2. Muriate of Hartshorn
3. Spirit of Hartshorn

1. Hartshorn: ammonium CARBONATE
2. Muriate of Hartshorn: ammonium CHLORIDE
3. Spirit of Hartshorn: STRONG ammonia solution, AROMATIC ammonia spirit
*Aromatic ammonia spirit: spirit of sal volatile

121

1. Sal ammoniac
2. Sal volatile
3. Spirit of sal volatile

1. Sal ammoniac: ammonium CHLORIDE
2. Sal volatile: ammonium CARBONATE
3. Spirit of sal volatile: AROMATIC ammonia spirit

122

Preston's salt

Ammonium carbonate; ammonia crystal, ammonium sesquicarbonate; baker's ammonia

123

Ammonia crystal

Ammonium carbonate; Hartshorn, ammonium sesquicarbonate; Preston's salt; baker's ammonia

124

Ammonia water

Dilute ammonia solution

125

Used to neutralize insect stings and jellyfish stings of Portuguese man-of-war

Ammonia water

126

Components of Aromatic ammonia spirit

Strong ammonia solution, ammonium carbonate, volatile oils (nutmeg and lemon), ethanol

127

1. Used as a respiratory stimulant in cases of hysterical syncope
2. Source of ammonia for 'smelling salts"

1. Aromatic ammonia spirit
2. Ammonium carbonate

128

Mercury amidochloride

Ammoniated mercury
*HgNH2Cl
*Non-fusible white precipitate
*Topical anti-infective

129

Antidote for amphetamine toxicity

Ammonium chloride
*Systemic/ urinary acidifier
*Ion trapping

130

Most malleable metals (3)

1. Gold
2. Aluminum
3. Copper

131

Best conductors of heat (3)

1. Silver
2. Gold
3. Copper

132

Best conductors of electricity (2)

1. SIlver
2. Copper

133

Color of cuprous salts

White except for Cu2S and Cu2O
*Generally water-insoluble

134

1. Bronze
2. Brass

1. Cu + Sn
2. Cu + Zn

135

Copper as metalloenzyme

1. Hemocyanin (respiratory pigment in animals)
2. Cytrochrome oxidase
3. Tyrosinase (melanin formation)
4. Lysyl oxidase (collagen formation)

136

Copper transporters in the body

Ceruloplasmin (95%), transcuprein

137

Pharmacologic actions of copper

1. Protein precipitant (heavy metal)
2. Enhances utilization of iron

138

1. Copper toxicity and treatment
2. Copper deficiency and treatment

1. Wilson's disease, Penicillmine
*Liver, brain, rings in cornea
2. Menke's disease, Copper-histidine (bypass Cu from intestine to blood)
*Kinky hair

139

1. Paris green
2. Mountain green
3. Scheele's green
4. Brunswick green

1. Paris green: copper aceto-arsenate; Schweinfurt's green
2. Mountain green: copper cabonate
3. Scheele's green: cupric hydrogen arsenite
4. Brunswick green: copper carbonate + chalk

140

Salzburg vitriol

Cupric sulfate.5H2O

141

Hatchett's brown

Cuprous citrate
*Astringent

142

Antidote for phosphorus poisoning

Cupric sulfate

143

Use of copper aceto-arsenate

Insecticide

144

1. Bordeaux mixture components
2. Use

1. Cupric sulfate and lime
2. Algaecide and fungicide in swimming pools