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Infectious Disease > ID-1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in ID-1 Deck (22):
1

What color do Gram-positive organisms stain and why?

Dark purple or blue-ish
THICK cell wall

2

What color do Gram-negative organisms stain and why?

Pink or reddish
THIN cell wall

3

Gram positive cocci in clusters

Staph aureus (MSSA, MRSA, CA-MRSA)
Staphy epidermidis (coagulase-negative)

4

Gram positive cocci in pairs/chains

Strep pneumo
Strep pyogenes (Group A)
Strep agalactiae (Group B)
Viridans group
Enterococcus faecalis
Enterococcus faecium

5

Gram positive rods

Bacillus anthracis
Corynebacterium
Listeria monocytogenes
Nocardia asteroides (branched appearance)

6

Gram positive anaerobes

Peptostrepto
Actinomyces israelii
Clostridium difficile
Clostridium perfringens
Lactobacillus
Propionibacterium acnes

7

Gram negative cocci

Neisseria gonorrhea
Neisseria meningitidis

8

Gram negative coccobacilli

Acinetobacter baumannii
Bordetella pertussis
Pasteurella multocida
Moraxella catarrhalis

9

Gram negative rods

E. coli
Klebsiella
Enterobacter cloacae
Proteus mirabilis
Serratia
Citrobacter
Morganella morganii
Salmonella
Shigella

10

Gram negative non-enterobacteriaceae (do not colonize the gut)

PSAR
Burkholderia cepacia
Strenotrophomonas maltophilia
Legionella pneumophila
Haemophilus influenzae
Eikenella corrodens
Providencia
Campylobacter jejuni
Helicobacter pylori
Vibrio cholerae
Yersinia pestis

11

Gram negative anaerobes

Bacteroides fragilis
Prevotella
Fusobacterium

12

Atypical organisms

Chlamydia
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (acid-fast bacillus)

13

CRE

carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae are a group of multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms.

They have enzymes that break down penicillins, most cephalosporins, and carbapenems.

Usually found in Klebsiella species

14

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)

The lowest drug concentration that prevents visible microbial growth after 24 hour incubation. Usually reported on culture and susceptibility report with interpretations of S, I, or R.

15

Breakpoint

The MIC at which an organism is deemed either susceptible or resistant to an antibiotic. Vary for different antibiotic classes. Breakpoints are established by the FDA and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

16

Synergy

When two or more drugs combine to produce a greater effect than the sum of their individual effects. Important for treating some types of infections.

17

Hydrophilic antibiotics

Beta-lactams
Aminoglycosides
Glycopeptides
Daptomycin
Colistimethate

18

Lipophilic antibiotics

Quinolones
Macrolides
Rifampin
Linezolid
Tetracyclines
Chloramphenicol

19

Common DDIs with beta-lactams

Probenecid can increase levels of beta-lactams by interfering with renal excretion. Can be used intentionally to increase antibiotic levels.

May enhance anticoagulant effect of warfarin by inhibiting production of Vitamin K dependent clotting factors. Except nafcillin and dicloxacillin.

20

Penicillin coverage

Gram positive cocci
Enterococcus
Anaerobes (mouth flora)

21

Added coverage of beta lactamase inhibitors

Add activity against MSSA, increase gram negative coverage, and add gram negative anaerobe coverage

22

Zosyn

piperacillin/tazobactam
Broad coverage with expanded gram negative coverage including PSAR.