Flashcards in ID4 Deck (33)
amphibian species/water/moist substrates
decline in frog biodiversity - species extinction
amphibian chytrid fungus disease (worldwide)
thrives in cool environments(high altitude frog pop)
waterborne zoospores occur in water/moist environments.
spread from place to place by water, materials, equpiment, flying birds, invertebrates, or on infected idividuals
1)definitive host: female anopheles mosquito
2) Secondary host: human and other vertebrates
Individual impact -malaria
symotoms headache, fever, vomitting, headaches.
severe: yellow skin, seizures, coma, death
pregnant women: still births, infant mortality
anopheles mosquito acts as a transmission vector- takes blood from host it introduces sporozoites from its saliva into host organism
1) An infected mosquito causes an infection by bite
2) Sporozoites enter the bloodstream, and migrate to the liver
3)They infect liver cells, where they reproduce asexually into merozoites, rupture the liver cells and return to the bloodstream,
4)The merozoites infect rbcs where they develop into ring forms (that produce further merozoites and gamete forms.
5) Gamete forms taken up by a mosquito fuse in the gut to form oocyst which release sporozoites which invade the salivary glands. The sporozoites are injected into the skin in the saliva when a mosquito takes a blood meal.
methods used to prevent malaria include medications, mosquito elimination(fogging) and the prevention of bites(mosquito nets, insect repellant, insecticides.) and health education Strats
!!!there is no vaccine for malaria but there are antimalarial medications
Worldwide impact of malaria
global burden increased because of drug resistant malaria.
Malaria maintains in tropical high temp, high rainfall, high humidity along with stagnant waters. They have moved out of places that lost these eg. BECAUSE of climate change.
Protista (it is a protist)
jarrah dieback - P.c.
soil and in plant tissue
oomycetes (water mold)
different Phytophthora species affect plants on all continents (-antarctica)
Mycelium growing in the roots absorb carbohydrates and nutrients, destroying the structure of root tissue (rotting). prevents plant for absorbing nutrients
Early symptoms of Phytophthora infection
wilting, yellowing, retention of dried foliage and darkening of root colour. Infection leads to death of plant, esp, in dry summer with little water
soil borne zoospores
spores easily spread through stormwater and drainage water. Human activities can also spread s[ores- road building, timber harvesting, mine exploration,...
Phytophthora life cycle
don't have one
humans but also other primates
common symptoms of active lung TB are cough with sputum and blood, chest pains, weakness, weight Koss, fever and night sweats
when an infected person sneezes or coughs or speaks, active bacteria suspended in droplets go into the air with other people breathe in
Life cycle -Tuberculosis
1) bacteria inhaled into lungs
2) If the bacteria does not get killed, reproduces
3) TB starts to develop when bacteria slow down at reproducing. they use the surrounding non active macrophages and form a granule. Bacteria can't reproduce but can live for a longer time.
4) inactive bacteria become reactivated and reproducing. these enter bloodstream that cause TB in other parts of body ... and or
5) the reproducing bacteria in the lungs may be inhaled in triplets and be transmitted to another host by inhalation
natural reservoir is the soil where it feeds on organic material
the bacteria multiply locally but the toxin released travels in bloodstream and lymphatic system and binds to nerve cells where it inhibits neurotransmitters. The toxin affects the brain and nervous system leading to stifles in the muscles.
Can cause severe spasms, breathing difficulties and can be fatal
soil borne-- endospores from contaminated soil or from objects with contaminated soil enter host usually through deep wound
Once infected host cannot transmit to another host
Life cycle -Tetanus
2 life stages
1) endospore stage (aerobic conditions)
2) growth stage (anaerobic conditions)
1) soil borne endospores infect a deep wound that is anaerobic
2) in anaerobic conditions the endospore germinate into the vegetative form and reduction through binary fission occurs. during this time neurotoxin are produced within the bacteria
3) The vegetative bacteria rupture releasing the neurotoxin which enters the blood stream.
host: members of 93 families of plants
reservoir: surface layer of fine root sand in the soil
Impact -Crown Gall
causes rough woody tutor like galls to form on roots, trunks and occasionally branches
galls can interrupt the flow of nutrients and water within the tree reducing plant growth
from contaminated ground or soil.
uses flagella to enter plant through a wound typically near base of plant