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Flashcards in ID4 Deck (33)
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1

chytridiomycosis
kingdom
pathogen
Host
Resevoir

Fungi
Bd
Amphibian species
amphibian species/water/moist substrates

2

chytridiomycosis impact

decline in frog biodiversity - species extinction

3

mycosis

fungal infection

4

chytridiomycosis

amphibian chytrid fungus disease (worldwide)
thrives in cool environments(high altitude frog pop)

5

Indirect/direct contact-chytridiomycosis

waterborne zoospores occur in water/moist environments.
spread from place to place by water, materials, equpiment, flying birds, invertebrates, or on infected idividuals

6

Transmission-chytridiomycosis

e

7

Malaria
kingdom
Pathogen
Host/reservoir
!!!genus!!!

protista
??
1)definitive host: female anopheles mosquito
2) Secondary host: human and other vertebrates
genus: plasmodium

8

impact

b

9

Individual impact -malaria

symotoms headache, fever, vomitting, headaches.
severe: yellow skin, seizures, coma, death
pregnant women: still births, infant mortality

10

MOT-malaria

Indirect contact
anopheles mosquito acts as a transmission vector- takes blood from host it introduces sporozoites from its saliva into host organism

11

Life cycle-Malaria(5)

1) An infected mosquito causes an infection by bite
2) Sporozoites enter the bloodstream, and migrate to the liver
3)They infect liver cells, where they reproduce asexually into merozoites, rupture the liver cells and return to the bloodstream,
4)The merozoites infect rbcs where they develop into ring forms (that produce further merozoites and gamete forms.
5) Gamete forms taken up by a mosquito fuse in the gut to form oocyst which release sporozoites which invade the salivary glands. The sporozoites are injected into the skin in the saliva when a mosquito takes a blood meal.

12

Prevention-malaria

methods used to prevent malaria include medications, mosquito elimination(fogging) and the prevention of bites(mosquito nets, insect repellant, insecticides.) and health education Strats
!!!there is no vaccine for malaria but there are antimalarial medications

13

Worldwide impact of malaria

global burden increased because of drug resistant malaria.
Malaria maintains in tropical high temp, high rainfall, high humidity along with stagnant waters. They have moved out of places that lost these eg. BECAUSE of climate change.

14

Phytophthora
kingdom
Pathogen
host/resevoir
CLASS

Protista (it is a protist)
jarrah dieback - P.c.
soil and in plant tissue
oomycetes (water mold)

15

Impact-Phytophthora

Worldwide:
different Phytophthora species affect plants on all continents (-antarctica)

Individual:
Mycelium growing in the roots absorb carbohydrates and nutrients, destroying the structure of root tissue (rotting). prevents plant for absorbing nutrients

16

Early symptoms of Phytophthora infection

wilting, yellowing, retention of dried foliage and darkening of root colour. Infection leads to death of plant, esp, in dry summer with little water

17

MOT- Phytophthora

Indirect contact-
soil borne zoospores

Transmission
spores easily spread through stormwater and drainage water. Human activities can also spread s[ores- road building, timber harvesting, mine exploration,...

18

Phytophthora life cycle

don't have one

19

Tuberculosis
Kingdom
Pathogen
Host/resevoir

Bacteria
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
humans but also other primates

20

Impact-Tuberculosis

common symptoms of active lung TB are cough with sputum and blood, chest pains, weakness, weight Koss, fever and night sweats

21

MOT- Tuberculosis

Non contact
airborne
when an infected person sneezes or coughs or speaks, active bacteria suspended in droplets go into the air with other people breathe in

22

Life cycle -Tuberculosis

1) bacteria inhaled into lungs
2) If the bacteria does not get killed, reproduces
3) TB starts to develop when bacteria slow down at reproducing. they use the surrounding non active macrophages and form a granule. Bacteria can't reproduce but can live for a longer time.
4) inactive bacteria become reactivated and reproducing. these enter bloodstream that cause TB in other parts of body ... and or
5) the reproducing bacteria in the lungs may be inhaled in triplets and be transmitted to another host by inhalation

23

Tetanus
Kingdom
Pathogen
Host/resevoir

bacteria
clostridium tetani
natural reservoir is the soil where it feeds on organic material

24

Impact-Tetanus

the bacteria multiply locally but the toxin released travels in bloodstream and lymphatic system and binds to nerve cells where it inhibits neurotransmitters. The toxin affects the brain and nervous system leading to stifles in the muscles.
Can cause severe spasms, breathing difficulties and can be fatal

25

MOT-Tetanus

Indirect contact
soil borne-- endospores from contaminated soil or from objects with contaminated soil enter host usually through deep wound
Once infected host cannot transmit to another host

26

Life cycle -Tetanus

2 life stages
1) endospore stage (aerobic conditions)
2) growth stage (anaerobic conditions)

1) soil borne endospores infect a deep wound that is anaerobic
2) in anaerobic conditions the endospore germinate into the vegetative form and reduction through binary fission occurs. during this time neurotoxin are produced within the bacteria
3) The vegetative bacteria rupture releasing the neurotoxin which enters the blood stream.

27

Crown Gall
Kingdom
Pathogen
Host/resevoir (split)

Bacteria
agrobacterium tumefaciens
host: members of 93 families of plants
reservoir: surface layer of fine root sand in the soil

28

Impact -Crown Gall

causes rough woody tutor like galls to form on roots, trunks and occasionally branches
galls can interrupt the flow of nutrients and water within the tree reducing plant growth

29

MOD-Crown Gall

Indirect contact
from contaminated ground or soil.
uses flagella to enter plant through a wound typically near base of plant

30

General life cycle of Crown Gall

1) bacteria in soil enter plant root thru wound (chemicals)
2) they reproduce. Bacteria DNA from the Ti plasmid enters the plasmid cell and cause them to make large amounts of growth hormone. cells divide uncontrollably--> tutor
3) galls contains the bacteria decay and return to the soil where the pathogen can be further dispersed to new areas and hosts by water or equipment or by transplanting infected plants