II - Topnotch Pharma Flash Cards - Cardiac-Renal Drugs Preview

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Flashcards in II - Topnotch Pharma Flash Cards - Cardiac-Renal Drugs Deck (55):
1

lower BP by decreasing volume

Diuretics (TOPNOTCH)

2

Inhibit NA/CL transporter in distal convoluted tubule

Thiazide Diuretics (TOPNOTCH)

3

for mild to moderate hypertension(first line), Heart falure, Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidius, Renal calcium stones

Thiazide Diuretics (TOPNOTCH)

4

Thiazide Diuretics

HCTZ, Chlorthalidone, Metolazone, Indapamide (TOPNOTCH)

5

hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, sulfa allergy, hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia

HCTZ, Chlorthalidone, Metolazone, Indapamide (TOPNOTCH)

6

Inhibit NA/K/2Cl transporter in thick ascending limb of loop of Henle

Loop Diuretics (TOPNOTCH)

7

Loop Diuretics

Furosemide, Torsemide, Bumetanide, Ethacynic Acid (TOPNOTCH)

8

Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, Potassium wasting, ototoxicity, hyperuricemia, nephrotoxicity, dehydration, hypomagnesemia,sulfa allergy, hypocalcemia

Loop Diuretics (TOPNOTCH)

9

activates a2 adrenergic receptors ; for hypertensive urgency

Clonidine (TOPNOTCH)

10

activates a2 adrenergic receptors, for pre eclampsia

Methyldopa (TOPNOTCH)

11

Taper use prior to discontinuation to avoid rebound hypertension ; readily enter the CNS

Clonidine (TOPNOTCH)

12

Irreversibly blocks the vesicular monoamine transporter(VMAT)

Reserpine (TOPNOTCH)

13

Block release of NE from the pre-synaptic neuron

Guanethidine, Guanadrel (TOPNOTCH)

14

alpha-1 blocker which is most selective for prostatic smooth muscle

Tamsulosin (TOPNOTCH)

15

Disadvantage of Prazosin compared to other alpha-1 blockers

short DOA (TOPNOTCH)

16

Release NO from endothelial cells, Relaxes arteriolar smooth muscle, causing vasolidation. Decreases afterload ; for pre-eclampsia, hypertension, heart failure

Hydralazine (TOPNOTCH)

17

drug induced lupus (hydralazine), reflex tachycardia

Hydralazine (TOPNOTCH)

18

Opens K+ channels in vascular smooth muscle, causing hyperpolarization, muscle relaxation and vasolidation

Minoxidil, Diazoxide (TOPNOTCH)

19

for alopecia / male pattern baldness, hypertension

Minoxidil (TOPNOTCH)

20

Constipation, Nausea, flushing,gingival hyperplasia, AV block, sinus node depression, Pretibial edema, dizziness

Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker: Verapamil, Diltiazem (TOPNOTCH)

21

block voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (vascular > cardiac); for Angina, hypertension

Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker: Nifedipine, Amlodipine, Nicardipine, Nisoldipine, Isradipine, Felodipine (TOPNOTCH)

22

relaxes venous and arteriolar smooth muscle

Nitroprusside (TOPNOTCH)

23

for acute heart failure, controlled hypotension, cardiogenic shock, hypertensive emergency

Nitroprusside (TOPNOTCH)

24

a thiazide derivative without a diuretic effect ; also induces insulin release (can be used to treat hypoglycemia in insulin-producing tumors)

Diazoxide (TOPNOTCH)

25

causes arteriolar vasolidation of the afferent and efferent arterioles

Fenoldopam (TOPNOTCH)

26

inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme ; for hypertension, heart failure

ACE inhibitors: Captopril, Enalapril, Lisinopril, Benazepril (TOPNOTCH)

27

slows down the progression of DM nephropathy and cardiac remodelling in heart failure

ACE inhibitors: Captopril, Enalapril, Lisinopril, Benazepril (TOPNOTCH)

28

competetively blocks Angiotensin 1 receptor site ; for hypertension

Angiotensin receptor blocker: Losartan, Valsartan, Irbesartan, Candesartan (TOPNOTCH)

29

inhibitor of renin's action on its substrate angiotensinogen

Aliskerin (TOPNOTCH)

30

releases nitric oxide(NO), relaxes smooth muscle, especially vascular, increases Cgmp (cyclic guanosine monophosphate); for cyanide poisoning

Amyl Nitrite (TOPNOTCH)

31

releases nitric oxide (NO), increases Cgmp (cyclic guanosine monophosphate) and relaxes smooth muscle especially vascular; for Angina, acute coronary syndromes

Nitroglycerin, Isosobide Dinitrate, Isosobide Mononitrate (TOPNOTCH)

32

Dangerous hypotension with PDE inhibitors

Nitroglycerin, Isosobide Dinitrate, Isosobide Mononitrate (TOPNOTCH)

33

block voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (cardiac > vascular); for Angina, Supraventricular tachycardia, migraine, hypertension

Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker: Verapamil, Diltiazem (TOPNOTCH)

34

inhibits Na/K ATPase; increases intracellular Ca, increasing cardiac contractility; for heart failure, Nodal arrythmias

Digoxin (TOPNOTCH)

35

Arrythmogenesis increased hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, hypomagnesemia

Digoxin (TOPNOTCH)

36

Hyperkalemia exacerbates cardiac toxicity

Class 1 Antiarryhtmics (TOPNOTCH)

37

Prolong AP duration

Class 1A: Procainamide, Disopyramide, Quinidine (TOPNOTCH)

38

Shorten AP Duration

Class 1B: Lidocaine, Mexiletene, Tocainide, Phenytoin (TOPNOTCH)

39

No effect on AP Duration

Class 1C: Flecainide, Propafenone, Encainide, Moricizine (TOPNOTCH)

40

Group with the greatest risk for TDP

Class 3 Arryhytmics (TOPNOTCH)

41

for Post MI prophylaxis against sudden death, thyrotoxicosis, acute perioperative and thyrotoxic arrythmias, Supraventricular tachycardia

Class 2: Propranolol, Esmolol (TOPNOTCH)

42

has Class 1, 2 3 and 4 activity therefore is the MOST EFFICACIOUS of all anti-arrhythmics

Amiodarone (TOPNOTCH)

43

DOC for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

Adenosine (TOPNOTCH)

44

for glaucoma, diuresis for edema with alkalosis.

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (TOPNOTCH)

45

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

Acetazolamide, Dorzolamide, Brinzolamide, Dichlorphenamide, Methaolamide (TOPNOTCH)

46

Efficacy decreasedby NSAIDs

Loop Diuretic, Thiazide Diuretics (TOPNOTCH)

47

For hypertension Hypercalciuria, Heart failure, Nephrogenic diabetes insipidius, renal calcium stones

Thiazide Diuretics: Hydrochlorothiazide, Chlorthalidone, Indapamide, Metolazone (TOPNOTCH)

48

Cause powerful diuresis and increased Ca excretion

Loop Diuretic: Furosemide, Bumetanide, Torsemide (TOPNOTCH)

49

Steroid inhibitors of cytoplasmic aldosterone receptor in cortical collecting ducts. Reduce K excretion;

Spironolactone, Eplerenone(Aldosterone Antagonist) (TOPNOTCH)

50

Inhibitor of ENaC (Epithelial sodium channels) in cortical collecting duct, reduces Na reabsorption and K excretion; for hypokalemia

Amiloride, Triamterene (TOPNOTCH)

51

reduces progression of DM nephropathy and reduces mortality post MI

Eplerenone (TOPNOTCH)

52

Osmotic Diuretics

Mannitol, Glycerin, Isosorbide, Urea (TOPNOTCH)

53

Transient volume expansion (hyponatremia, pulmonary edema; followed by hypernatremia) nausea, headache, dehydration, vomiting

Osmotic Diuretics SE (TOPNOTCH)

54

Agonists at V1 and v2 ADH receptors. Activate insertion of aquaporin water channels in collecting tubule.

Antidiuretic hormone, Desmopressin (TOPNOTCH)

55

Antagonist at V1a, V2 receptors; for SIADH and Hyponatremia

Conivaptan, Tolvaptan, Lixivaptan (TOPNOTCH)