IK and biotechnology Flashcards Preview

Gd 10 - Life Sciences 2017 > IK and biotechnology > Flashcards

Flashcards in IK and biotechnology Deck (56):
1

A typical plant tissue culture medium

 

(Image: http://www.wur.nl/en/Expertise-Services/Research-Institutes/plant-research/Plant-Breeding/Tissue-Culture.htm)

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  • A glass container with a solid or liquid culture substance e.g. agar
  • It contains nutrients and hormones that promote mitosis

 

2

Possible ethical opinions FOR stem cell research

 

  • Embryos are clumps of tissue, not yet humans
  • Umbilical cord blood does not destroy embryo's
  • Reproductive cloning produces stem cells without need for fertilisation
  • Research needed for numerous benefits...

 

(Image: http://www.ozy.com/pov/20-years-after-dolly-where-is-cloning-heading/75741)

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3

Three sources of stem cells

  • Embryo's
  • Umbilical cord or placenta
  • Bone marrow and liver tissue

(Image: http://www.eurostemcell.org/cord-blood-stem-cells-current-uses-and-future-challenges)

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4

Name at least 3 plant organs for asexual reproduction

  • runners
  • bulbs
  • tubers
  • leaf plantlets
  • suckers

(Image: http://slideplayer.com/slide/8553549/)

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5

Alternative medicine

Traditional healing used instead of mainstream medical care

 

 

(Image: https://chronicallyridicilous.wordpress.com/2016/12/18/8-ways-alternative-medicine-hurts-those-of-us-with-chronically-illnesses/)

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6

Devil's claw

 

(Image source: http://www.rjwhelan.co.nz/herbs%20A-Z/herb%20images/Devils_claw.jpg)

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  • A plant from the Kalahari
  • Underground stem (Tubers) harvested
  • anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic and analgesic properties
  • Used to treat joint and muscle pain, arthritis and rheumatism

7

Molecular cloning

Cloning to make identical genes and useful chemical compounds

8

Biotechnology

  • the use of living systems and organisms
  • to develop or make products

9

Embryonic stem cells

 

  • Embryonic tissue cells
  • Can produce more of themselves
  • Can differentiate into all cell types

 

10

Traditional biotechnology

  • The use of natural organisms by humans to create or modify foods or other useful products
  • e.g. fermentation, medicinal plants

11

Antibiotics affect

  • The survival and growth of microbes
  • Especially bacteria

12

If you are the recipient of wrong blood type

  • Immune system rejects the blood
  • You may die

13

IKS typically impacts which areas of society?

  • Agriculture
  • healthcare
  • cooking
  • education
  • resource management

 

14

First antibiotic discovered (name, date and person)

  • Penicillin
  • Alexander Fleming
  • 1928

15

First developed vaccine (disease targeted)

smallpox

16

How is a reproductively cloned animal made?

  • Donor egg cell taken from foster mom
  • Nucleus removed
  • Cell taken from animal to be cloned
  • Nucleus removed and fused with the empty egg cell
  • Fused cell divides by mitosis to form embryo
  • Embryo placed in foster mothers uterus to develop into cloned individual.

17

First developed vaccine (person and year)

 

  • Edward Jenner
  • 1796

18

Traditional methods of plant cloning

  • plant cuttings and grafts
  • replanting bulbs and tubers

19

Complementary medicine

 

(Image: http://rehabcenternearme.com/affects-acupuncture-substance-abuse/)

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  • Traditional healing used together with conventional medical treatment with the aim that it "complements" (improves) the treatment
  • E.g. using acupuncture to help with side effects of cancer treatment.
  • When health care providers and facilities offer both types of care, it is called integrative medicine

20

The four main blood types

  • A
  • B
  • AB
  • O

21

"in vitro" stem cells

 

(Image: http://www.artinhospitals.com/lg_art_in_art_06.html)

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  • Stem cells from fertilised eggs grown in cultures
  • Eggs that have been fertilized in vitro—in an in vitrofertilization clinic
  • Donated for research purposes with informed consent of the donors.

22

African potato

 

(Image: http://www.herbgarden.co.za/mountainherb/webherbfotos/big_AfricanPotato.JPG)

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  • A plant from the grasslands
  • Contains many plant sterols
  • Traditionally used as a laxative
  • Recently found to boost the immune system
  • E.g. Used as complementary medicine for patients with HIV/AIDS

 

23

Disease related to smallpox used to create the first vaccine

Cowpox

24

Levels of bodies defence

 

  • barriers e.g. skin
  • defense reactions - inflammation; white blood cells engulf microbes
  • immunity - antibodies that target specific infections

 

25

Advantages to making plant tissue cultures

  • exact copies with wanted traits
  • fast growth to mature plants
  • increased quantity of plants possible
  • virus-free stock

 

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26

T-lymphocyte function

 

  • Destroys viruses
  • Destroys cancer cells

 

27

Sterile

  • Very clean
  • No germs

28

What is a Blood transfusion?

  • Blood lost from accident or during surgery
  • Replaced in recipient from donors
  • Transfusion via a needle inserted into a blood vessel in the arm

29

Environmental problems potenially caused by traditional healers

  • 3000 plant species used
  • large informal trade sector depletes natural populations of these species
  • made worse by urbanisation and higher demand
  • many of these species threatened with extinction

30

Regulation of traditional healers in South Africa

  • Sangomas are legally recognised in South Africa as "traditional health practitioners",
  • Under the Traditional Health Practitioners Act of 2007 (Act. 22 of 2007) as diviners alongside with herbalists, traditional birth attendants, and traditional surgeons.
  • This ensures that their practices are regulated.

31

Ways to reduce pressure on threatened natural resources needed for traditional healing

 

(Image: https://www.africaresearchinstitute.org/newsite/publications/briefing-notes/land-law-and-traditional-leadership-in-south-africa/)

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  • Alternative treatments
  • Harvesters trained properly
  • Harvesters licenced for particular species to be collected
  • Cultivation/farming of threatened species

32

Explain what a callus of cells is in a plant tissue culture

 

  • Isolated plant cells from parent plant divide by mitosis
  • These form a group of cells called a callus
  • With more plant hormones the callus differentiates into roots, stems and leaves

 

33

Traditional healers

  • People who treat patients using traditional medicines
  • especially using local herbs and muti
  • e.g. Sangomas

34

Originating or occurring naturally in a particular place

Indigenous

35

First reproductively cloned animal, when?

 

  • A sheep named Dolly
  • 1996

 

 

(Image: http://dolly.roslin.ed.ac.uk/)

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36

Plant tissue cultures

growing plants from cells or tissues of a parent plant in a special growth medium

37

Therapeutic cloning

 

  • Cloning to form stem cells
  • Able to grow into specific tissues
  • Needed to replace diseased tissues
  • E.g. skin for burns
  • E.g. bone marrow transplants for cancer

 

 

(Image: https://thehandstand.org/archive/march2004/articles/clone.htm)

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38

Possible ethical opinions ANTI stem cell research

 

  • New life begins with fertilisation
  • Destruction of embryos is immoral, equates murder
  • Taking role of God in creating and destroying life

 

39

The ability for a single white blood cell to take up other cells, germs and particles by engulfing them

phagocytosis

40

Adult stem cells

 

  • Tissue stem cells
  • Replace old and damaged cells in adults
  • Only certain types
  • E.g. skin
  • E.g. bone marrow
  • E.g. Nerve tissue

41

Blood bank

  • Blood collected from volunteer donors
  • Blood stored in sterile blood bank until needed

42

IKS

Indigenous knowledge systems

43

How are clones formed in nature?

 

(Image: https://gardenpool.org/gardening-tips/cloning-aquaponic-or-hydroponic-strawberry-plants-by-runners)

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By asexual reproduction

44

A clone

DNA fragments, cells, tissues or organisms that are genetically identical

45

The first cloned animals, when?

  • Sea urchins
  • Late 1800s

46

B-lymphocyte function

 

  • Makes antibodies
  • Antibodies destroy invading organisms and infected cells

 

47

Examples of diseases commonly a problem prior to vaccination for them

 

  • Smallpox
  • Polio
  • Chickenpox
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Influenza (flu)

 

48

How penicillin was discovered

 

(Image: http://wikivisually.com/wiki/Penicillin)

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  • Fleming was examining bacteria on slides
  • one slide was contaminated with mould called Penicillium notatum
  • Where mold grew, bacteria disappeared

49

Indigenous knowledge

  • Knowledge that certain communities or cultures have
  • Aquired over generations through interactions with their environment

50

"Universal" recipient blood type

Type AB

51

Blood cell not involved in immunity

Red blood cell

52

"Universal" donor blood type

Type O

53

Medical Biotechnology

  • The scientific use of living systems and organisms
  • to develop or make medical products or treatments.
  • E.g. insulin production using bacteria

54

Blood donor

 

(image: https://www.thenewspaper.co.za/western-cape-celebrates-national-blood-donor-month/)

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  • A person from whom blood is collected
  • Must be healthy and over 16 years old

55

Antibiotics come from

  • Chemical compounds
  • Secreted by certain moulds (Fungi)
  • e.g. Penicillium sp.

 

 

(Image: https://accounts.smccd.edu/case/antibiotics.html)

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56

Through which means can we administer antibiotics

  • Tablet
  • Suspension (liquid)
  • Injection