Image Analysis Final (central rays) Flashcards Preview

Radiography Spring 2016 > Image Analysis Final (central rays) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Image Analysis Final (central rays) Deck (193):
1

CR: Digits 2-5

perpendicular to PIP joint of affected digit

2

CR thumb/first digit:

perpendicular to MCP joint

3

CR for PA and oblique hand:

perpendicular to the 3rd MCP joint

4

CR for lateral hand:

perpendicular to the 2nd MCP joint

5

CR for wrist

perpendicular to midcarpal area

6

what is best demonstrated on a PA oblique wrist:

trapezium and distal half of scaphoid

7

what is best demonstrated on AP oblique wrist?

pisiform

8

CR for AP and Lateral forearm:

perpendicular to the midpoint of the forearm

9

why is AP forearm is done over PA?

pronation of hand crosses radius over ulna at the proximal third and rotates the humerus medially creating an oblique -- AP keeps them separated

10

CR for AP elbow?

perpendicular to elbow joint

11

What is best demonstrated on the lateral elbow?

olecranon process

12

CR for AP medial oblique elbow:

perpendicular to elbow joint

13

what is best demonstrated on AP Medial oblique elbow?

coronoid process

14

CR for AP Lateral Oblique elbow:

perpendicular to elbow joint

15

what is best demonstrated on AP Lateral Oblique Elbow?

radial head and neck

16

CR AP and Lateral humerus:

perpendicular to the mid-portion of the humerus and the center of the IR

17

CR for AP External SHoulder:

perpendicular 1 inch inferior to coracoid process

18

Hand placement for AP External shoulder?

supinate the hand

19

what is best demonstrated on the AP external shoulder?

greater tubercle

20

CR for AP internal shoulder:

perpendicular 1 inch inferior to coracoid process

21

hand placement for AP internal shoulder

back of hand on hip

22

what's best demonstrated on an AP internal shoulder?

lesser tubercle

23

CR for Transthoracic Lateral Shoulder

perpendicular to the IR entering the MCP at the level of the surgical neck

24

Placement of affected arm in a Transthoracic Lateral Shoulder

By side

25

Placement of unaffected arm in a Transthoracic Lateral Shoulder

Raise it and rest forearm on head and elevate shoulders as much as possible

26

CR for Axillary Shoulder (Inferosuperior)

horizontally through the axilla to the region of AC articulation -- medial angulation of CR depends on degree of abduction of arm (15-30)

27

What is the lesser tubercle placement in Axillary Shoulder(inferosuperior)

in profile and directed anteriorly

28

CR for bilateral AP AC joints:

perpendicular to the midline of the body at the level of the AC joints for a single projection

29

CR for AP Axial AC joints:

Directed to the coracoid process at a cephalic angle of 15 degrees

30

CR for AP Clavicle:

perpendicular to midshaft of the clavicle

31

CR for AP Axial Clavicle:

15 degrees cephalic enter the midshaft of the clavicle

32

What is the purpose of angulation for AP Axial Clavicle?

To project the clavicle off the scapula and ribs

33

CR for AP scapula

perpendicular to mid-scapular area at a point approximately 2 inches inferior to the coracoid process

34

Where is the affected arm placed for a AP scapula?

Abduct the arm to a right angle with body, flex the elbow, and support the hand in a comfortable position

35

CR for lateral scapula:

perpendicular to the mid-medial border of the protruding scapula

36

What makes up the "Y" in the lateral scapula?

Acromion, coracoid process, and body of scapula

37

CR for AP Axial Toes

15 degrees posteriorly through 3rd MTP joint

38

CR for AP oblique Toes:

Perpendicular and entering the third MTP joint

39

CR for Lateral Toes:

entering IP joint for great toe or proximal IP joint for lesser toes

40

CR for AP or AP Axial Foot

10 degrees toward the heel entering the base of 3rd metatarsal
or
entering base of third metatarsal

41

CR for lateral foot

perpendicular to the base of third metatarsal

42

CR for AP medial Oblique Foot

base of third metatarsal

43

Degree of obliquity for AP Medial Oblique Foot

30 degrees

44

AP Medial Oblique Foot critique for correct rotation

if more than 30 degrees the lateral cuneiform tends to be thrown over other cuneiforms -- cuboid in profile

45

CR for Axial Calcaneus

cephalic angle of 40 degrees to the long axis of the foot entering the base of the third metatarsal

46

CR for lateral calcaneus

1 inch distal to medial malleolus -- subtalar joint

47

CR AP ankle

perpendicular through the ankle joint at a point midway between the malleoli

48

CR Lateral Ankle:

perpendicular to the ankle joint entering the medial malleolus

49

CR for AP medial oblique ankle:

perpendicular to the ankle joint entering midway between malleoli

50

AP medial oblique ankle critique to check rotation

distal ends of the tibia and fibula shown and tibiofibular articulation should be shown

51

CR AP and Lateral Lower Leg

perpendicular to the center of the leg

52

CR AP knee

5 degrees cephalic 1/2 inch inferior to the patellar apex

53

CR Lateral Knee

5-7 cephalic 1 inch distal to medial epicondyle

54

CR AP medial oblique knee

1/2 inch inferior to the patellar apex

55

Patient position for intercondylar fossa (camp Coventry)

prone -- patient knee to a 40-50 degree angle

56

CR of intercondylar fossa (camp Coventry)

perpendicular to the long axis of the lower leg and centered to the knee joint -- angle 40 degrees when knee is 40 degrees

57

CR for tangential patella (settegast method)

perpendicular to the joint space between the patella and the removal condyles when the joint is perpendicular -- angle 15-20 degrees

58

CR for AP Femur

perpendicular to the mid-femur

59

what is the purpose of rotating limb internally 15-20 degrees on a AP Femur?

places femoral neck in profile

60

CR for lateral femur

perpendicular to the mid-femur

61

CR for AP Pelvis:

2 inches inferior to ASIS and 2 inches superior to pubic symphysis

62

how to check for proper lower limb rotation in AP pelvis?

if femoral necks parallel with plane of image receptor

63

CR for AP Hip:

perpendicular to femoral neck

64

AP Hip, hip localization technique:

left thumb on ASIS, second finger is on superior margin of pubic symphysis. CR is positioned 1.5 inches distal to center of line drawn between ASIS and pubic symphysis

65

CR for lateral frog hip

perpendicular through the hip joint (midway between ASIS and pubic symphysis)

66

Greater tubercle position in lateral frog hip

greater trochanter overlaps femoral neck

67

CR Axiolateral Hip

perpendicular to long axis of the femoral neck

68

Relationship of femoral neck and IR in Axiolateral Hip

parallel

69

CR AP open mouth

perpendicular to center of IR and entering the midpoint of open mouth

70

Position of mouth for AP Open Mouth

open mouth as wide as possible, adjust head so that a line from the low edge of the upper incisors to the tip of the mastoid process is perpendicular to IR

71

AP Open Mouth SID and why:

30 inch to increase the field of view of the odontoid area

72

AP Axial Cervical CR

15-20 degrees cephalic through C4

73

which vertebra must be see on AP Axial Cervical

C3-T2

74

what is demonstrated on the AP Axial Cervical

the lower 5 cervical bodies, upper 2 or 3 thoracic bodies, the interpediculate spaces, the superimposed transverse and articular processes and the intervertebral disk spaces

75

CR lateral cervical

horizontal and perpendicular to C4

76

SID for lateral cervical and why

60-72" increased object to IR distance to show C7

77

what is best demonstrated on lateral cervical

spinous processes and cervical bodies and interspaces, open zygapophyseal joints

78

CR posterior oblique cervical

C4 at a cephalic angle of 15-20 degrees

79

marker placement for posterior oblique cervical

mark down side -- opposite from what is demonstrated

80

best demonstrated on posterior oblique cervical

intervertebral foramina and pedicles farthest from the IR an oblique projection of bodies

81

CR for anterior oblique cervical

C4 at an angle of 15-20 degrees caudal

82

marker placement on Anterior Oblique Cervical

mark down side -- same side of what's demonstrated

83

what's best demonstrated on anterior oblique cervical

intervertebral foramina and pedicles closest to the IR and an oblique projection of the bodies

84

CR AP thoracic

halfway between the jugular notch and xiphoid process (T7)

85

Respiration for AP thoracic

suspend at end of full expiration

86

CR for lateral thoracic

perpendicular to level of T7

87

lateral thoracic respiration

breathing technique

88

best demonstrated on lateral thoracic

lateral projection of thoracic bodies, interspaces, intervertebral foramina, and lower spinous processes

89

which thoracic vertebra are visualized on lateral thoracic spine and why?

lower 9 because T1-T3 are superimposed by shoulders

90

CR swimmers

caudal 3-5 degrees direct to C7-T1 interspace

91

swimmers respiration

suspend, breathing technique

92

CR AP lumbar spine

perpendicular to IR at level of iliac crests

93

best demonstrated on AP lumbar

lumbar bodies intervertebral disk spaces, interpediculate spaces, laminae, and spinous and transverse processes

94

CR lateral lumbar

perpendicular to level of the crest enters MCP

95

best demonstrated on lateral lumbar

lumbar bodies and their interspaces, the spinous processes, and the lumbosacral junction

96

CR posterior oblique lumbar

2 inches medial to elevate ASIS and 1 1/2 inches above iliac crest

97

best demonstrated on posterior oblique lumbar

oblique projection of the lumbar or lumbosacral spine or both showing the articular process on the side closest to the IR

98

Scotty dog ear

superior articular process

99

scotty dog eye

pedicle

100

scotty dog neck/collar

pars interarticularis

101

scotty dog nose

transverse process

102

scotty dog front leg

inferior articular process

103

CR L5-S1 Spot

5-8 caudal center on coronal plane 2 inch posterior to ASIS and 1 1/2 inches inferior to iliac crest

104

CR AP Sacrum

15 cephalic at 2 inches superior to pubic symphysis

105

CR AP coccyx

10 caudal 2 inches superior to pubic symphysis

106

CR lateral sacrum and coccyx

perpendicular and directed to level of ASIS and to a point 3 1/2 inches posterior

107

Lateral Sacrum and Coccyx IR placement

top of film at crests

108

CR AP Axial SI joints

30-35 cephalic enters 1 1/2 inches superior to pubic symphysis on MSP

109

CR posterior oblique SI joint:

perpendicular entering 1 inch medial to elevated ASIS

110

Degree of obliquity of posterior oblique SI joint

25-30

111

which SI joint is demonstrated on the posterior oblique SI joint?

upside

112

CR for AP and Lateral Esophagus

IR is at the level of the mouth -- level of T5-T6

113

CR RAO Esophagus

Top of IR is at the level of mouth (level of T5-T6)

114

degree of obliquity for RAO esophagus:

35-40 degrees

115

Purpose of obliquing patient for RAO esophagus

places esophagus between the vertebra and the heart

116

CR for PA UGI

1-2 inch above the lower rib margin at the level of L1-L2

117

where contrast will be on a double-contrast study for PA UGI?

body, duodenal bulb, and pylorus

118

CR RAO UGI:

1-2 inches above lower rib margin level of L1-L2

119

Degree of obliquity RAO UGI:

40-70 degrees

120

what is demonstrated to RAO UGI:

stomach, duodenal bulb, duodenal loop, pyloric canal

121

CR lateral UGI

level of L1-2 for recumbent (1-2 inches above lower rib margin) level of L3 for upright

122

CR AP UGI

level midway between the xiphoid process and lower rib margin

123

in AP UGI where barium will be on double-contrast study

fundus

124

CR for PA BE

enter the midline of the body at the level of the iliac crests

125

where is barium situated in colon in PA BE?

transverse colon

126

CR PA Axial Sigmoid BE

30-40 caudal to enter midline of body at the lvel of ASIS

127

best demonstrated on PA Axial Sigmoid BE

rectrosigmoid area of colon

128

CR PA Oblique RAO BE

1-2 inches lateral to midline of the body on the elevate side at level of iliac crest

129

degree of obliquity for PA Oblique (RAO) BE

35-45

130

best demonstrated PA Oblique (RAO) BE

right colic flexure, ascending colon, and the sigmoid colon

131

CR PA oblique (LAO) BE

perpendicular to IR and entering approximately 1-2 inches lateral to midline of the body on the elevated side at the level of iliac crest

132

degree of obliquity for PA oblique (LAO) BE

35-45

133

Best demonstrated on PA oblique LAO BE

left colic flexure and the descending portion of the colon

134

CR left lateral rectum

enter MCP at level of ASIS

135

best demonstrated on left lateral rectum

rectum and distal sigmoid portion

136

CR AP BE

enter midline of body at the level of iliac crest

137

where barium lies on double-contrast AP BE

flexures

138

CR AP Axial Sigmoid BE

30-40 cephalic enter midline of body approximately 2 inches below ASIS

139

best demonstrated AP Axial Sigmoid BE

rectrosigmoid area of colon

140

CR Right lateral decubitus BE

horizontal and perpendicular to enter the midline of the body at the level of the iliac crests

141

best demonstrated on right lateral decubitus BE

"UP" medial side of the ascending colon and lateral side of descending colon when colon is inflated with air

142

CR left lateral decubitus BE

horizontal and perpendicular to the IR to enter the midline of the body at the level of iliac crests

143

best demonstrated on left lateral decubitus BE

"up" lateral side of the ascending colon and the medial side of the descending colon when the colon is inflated with air

144

CR cross table lateral (ventral decub) BE

horizontal and perpendicular to the IR to enter MCP of the body at the level of the iliac crests

145

bets demonstrated cross table lateral (ventral decub) BE

"up" posterior portions of colon

-- only on double contrast

146

CR PA Skull

exit nasion

147

PA Skull best demonstrates

frontal bone

148

PA Skull OML

perpendicular

149

PA Skull petrous ridges

filling the orbits

150

CR PA Axial Skull (Caldwell)

15 degree caudal exit nasion

151

PA Axial Skull (Caldwell) best demonstrated

frontal bone

152

PA Axial Skull Caldwell OML

perpendicular

153

PA Axial Skull Caldwell Petrous Ridges

lower third of orbit

154

CR lateral skull

perpendicular entering 2 inches superior to EAM

155

in lateral skull which lines are parallel with long axis of IR

IOML and MSP

156

Lateral Skull IPL

perpendicular

157

CR AP Axial Skull(Townes)

Directed through the foramen magnum at a caudal angle of 30 degrees to OML or 37 degrees to IOML. Enters approximately 2 1/2 inches above the glabella and passes through the level of the EAM

158

AP Axial Skull Townes best demonstrates

occipital bone

159

CR lateral facial bones

halfway between the outer canthus and EAM

160

What facial bones are demonstrated on lateral facial bones

All facial bones

161

CR for Parietoacanthial (waters)

perpendicular to exit acanthion

162

Parietoacanthial Waters OML

37 degree angle

163

Parietoacanthial Waters which line is perpendicular to IR

MML and MSP

164

CR lateral nasal bones

perpendicular to the bridge of the nose at a point 1/2 inch distal to nasion

165

which side is demonstrated on lateral nasal bones

side nearest film

166

lateral nasal bones done TT or bucky

TT

167

CR SMV for zygomatic arches

perpendicular to the IOML and entering MSP of throat approximately 1 inch posterior to outer canthus

168

SMV for zygomatic arches IOML

parallel

169

SMV for zygomatic arches MSP

perpendicular

170

CR Lateral Sinuses

horizontal entering the patient's head 1/2 to 1 inch posterior to outer canthus

171

Lateral sinus IPL

perpendicular to IR

172

Lateral Sinus MSP

parallel to IR

173

Lateral Sinus IOML

parallel to transverse plane of IR

174

What sinuses are demonstrated on Lateral Sinuses

all

175

what sinuses are demonstrated on Caldwell Sinuses?

frontal, sphenoid, maxillary

176

what sinus I best demonstrated in Caldwell sinuses?

frontal

177

location of petrous ridges in waters sinuses?

below the floor of the maxillary sinus

178

sinuses demonstrated in waters sinus

maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus, frontal

179

which sinus is best demonstrated in waters sinus?

maxillary sinus

180

CR for PA mandible

perpendicular to exit acanthion

181

in PA mandible what is in contact with the grid

patients forehead and nose

182

CR PA Axial Mandible

20-25 cephalic exits acanthion

183

CR Axiolateral Oblique Mandible

20-25 cephalic enters approximately 2" distal gonion of upside

184

chin placement of axiolateral oblique mandible

extend until body is parallel with IR plane

185

CR AP Axial TMJ

35 caudal midway between TMJs entering a point 3 inches above nasion

186

What 2 exposures are made for AP axial TMJ

open and closed mouth

187

Axiolateral TMJ CR

25-30 caudal enters 1/2" anterior and 2" superior to upside EAM, exits through TMJ

188

what side is against IR for Axiolateral TMJ

affected side

189

what is demonstrated on Axiolateral TMJ

condyles and neck of mandible

190

CR Rhese

exits down orbit

191

In Rhese what parts touching grid

nose, cheek, and chin

192

What positioning line is perpendicular to IR in Rhese?

AML

193

what is demonstrated in Rhese?

optic foramen in lower outer quadrant of orbit