Imaging of The Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Systems - Urinary > Imaging of The Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Imaging of The Urinary System Deck (17):
1

What are the indications of renal imaging?

Renal colic and renal stone disease

Haematuria

Suspected renal mass

UTIs

Hypertension

2

What are the different imaging techniques for the kidney?

Plain film

Contrast studies

–IVU

–Pyelography: antegrade, retrograde, ileal conduit

–Cystography

Ultrasound +/- contrast

CT and CTU

MR and MRU

Isotope scans

PET-CT

3

Define IVU 

Intravenous urogram 

- IV injection of contrast allowes visulisation of the renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and calyces

4

Advantages and disadvantages of plain films

Advantages

–Cheap and readily available

–Functional and anatomical information (IVU)

 

Disadvantages

–Low sensitivity and specificity for urological diseases

–Radiation

5

What is pyelography?

Injection of contrast into the ureters

6

What does micturating cystourethrography assess?

Vesico - ureteric refulx and its grade

7

What are the advantages and disadvantages of US?

Advantages

–Cheap and readily available

–No radiation

–Contrast is not nephrotoxic

–Real time imaging

Disadvantages

–Limited by body habitus and gas

–Poor visualisation of ureters

–Operator dependant

–No functional information

8

What is ureterocele?

Ureterocele
(cystic outpouching of ureter into bladder)

9

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a CT?

lAdvantages

–Currently the imaging modality of choice for detection of renal stones, staging renal tumours, investigation of hematuria

–Good spatial resolution with capability of multi planar reformat

lDisadvantages

–Radiation dose

–Cost

–Contrast resolution less than MR

–Contrast reaction and nephrotoxicity

10

What are the advantages and disadvantages of MR

lAdvantages

–Multiplanar imaging

–Excellent contrast resolution

–Imaging of urothelium without contrast injection (MRU)

lDisadvantages

–Poor spatial resolution

–Poor detection of calcification and stones

–Cost

–Contraindications: pace maker, claustrophobia,etc

–Contrast reaction and other side effects

11

What are the different isotope scans and what are the used for?

DMSA - renal scarring

MAG3 - Assess renal function and drainage

Bone scan - metastatic disease e.g prostate cancer

12

Why does PET CT have limited use in urinary system?

Limited use in staging of urological malignancies due to  high uptake in urine and variable uptake by tumours.

13

When might PET-CT be useful?

May be useful for extra-urological metastatic disease if other imaging modalities are equivocal or in poor surgical candidates

14

What is the best imaging modailty to diagnose renal tract stones?

CT

15

What is the best imaging modality for the staging of renal tumours?

CT

16

What is the least helpful imaging modality in the assessment of patient with suspected renal artery stenosis?

US

17