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Flashcards in Immune Deck (28)
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1

Lab test: C reactive protein (CRP)

liver produced opsonin, production increased by IL-6.
fixes complement and facilitates phagocytosis.
measured clinically as a nonspecific sign of inflammation

2

Lab test: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

fibrinogen aggregates RBCs, when settle out of suspension faster more inflammation

3

Lab test: D-dimer

degradation product of fibrin, indicates clot formation

4

Lab test: Complement C3

levels reduced due to continual cleavage in the presence of inflammation

5

Lab tests: CBC with diff

could indicate elevated proliferation of immune cell types in response to infection

6

Temperature (fever)

IL-6, lL-1, TNF-alpha

7

Fibrinogen

Acute phase protein. coagulation factor, promotes endothelial repair, correlates with ESR

8

Serum amyloid A

Acute phase protein. prolonged elevation can lead to amyloidosis. Aid in immune homing (cells migrate to organ of origin)

9

Ferritin

Acute phase protein. Binds and sequesters iron to inhibit microbial iron scavenging

10

Hepcidin

decrease iron absorption (by degrading ferroportin) and decrease iron release (from macrophage) anemia of chronic disease

11

Arthritis:
Cell/mediator, initiator and sx

Cell/mediator: lymphocytes, macrophages
Initiator: autoimmunity
Sx: joint inflammation/pain

12

Asthma
Cell/mediator, initiator and sx

Cell/mediator: eosinophils, IgE
Initiator:allergen, irritant
Sx: airway inflammation

13

Atherosclerosis
Cell/mediator, initiator and sx

Cell/mediator: macrophages
Initiator: oxidized LDL uptake by macrophages
Sx: clogged arteries

14

Chronic Transplant Rejection
Cell/mediator, initiator and sx

Cell/mediator: lymphocytes, cytokines
Initiator: lymphocyte response to transplant tissue
Sx: Fibrosis of the vessels of the transplanted tissue

15

Pulmonary fibrosis
Cell/mediator, initiator and sx

Cell/mediator: macrophages, fibroblasts
Initiator: inhalation of pollutants, cigarette smoke
Sx: scarring of the lung

16

Cancers: colon, lung, gastric skin--chronic inflammation such as foreign body (cig smoke)
Cell/mediator, initiator

Cell/mediator: macrophages, T-cells
Initiator: DNA damage by ROS, NO (leads to carcinogenesis). Pro-survival anti-apoptosis signals

17

What are the acute phase proteins?

More FFiSH in the C (sea)
Ferritin, Fibrinogen, Serum amyloid A, Hepcidin, C-reactive protein

18

What is the cell that has the primary source of histamine?

mast cells

19

What receptors do antihistamines block?

H1 receptors

20

What is a primary early mediatory of increased vascular permeability?

histamine

21

What are the major cytokines involved in local inflammation?

Endothelial cells: IL-1 and TNF-alpha increase permeability
Leukocytes: TNF-alpha and IL-1 activate

22

What are the major cytokines involved in systemic inflammation protective effects?

Brain--Fever--TNF, IL-1, IL-6
Liver--acute phase protein-- IL-6, IL-1
Bone marrow--Leukocyte production--TNF, IL-1, IL-6

23

What are the major cytokines involved in systemic inflammation pathological effects?

Heart--low output--TNF
Endothelial cells/blood vessel--thrombus, increased permeability--TNF
Skeletal tissue--insulin resistance--myalgias--TNF

24

What are vasodilators and what cells do the come from?

NO--macrophage
Histamine-- basophil and mast cell
Prostaglandins--eosinophil and endothelium
Serotonin--platelet

25

What help with vascular permeability and what cells do the come from?

Histamine--basophil and mast cell
Leukotrienes--eosinophil and endothelium
Bradykinin--endothelium
complement proteins

26

Activation of PRRs by their _____ triggers _____ activation (______ increases, _________ increases, ___________ increases, _________ increases).

ligands; phagocyte; antigen presentation; co-stimulatory molecules; oxidative burst; inflammatory protein expression

27

PRR activation of ___________ cells is important for activation of ________ cells.

antigen presenting cells; T-helper cells

28

Mediator of vasodilation/vascular permeability

Cytokines: ex IL-1 from macrophages/DC
NO: endothelium relaxes vascular muscles (also produced by macrophages)
Histamine: basophils and mast cells activated endothelial cells causes gaps
Prostaglandins + leukotrienes (AA) from eosinophils (act on endothelial cells)
Cleaved complement components (ex C5a)