Flashcards in Immune Overview (Gumperz) Deck (28):
5 functions of immune system
1. host defense
2. wound healing
3. maintaining cellular homeostasis
4. tissue remodeling
5. managing microbial symbionts
3 parts of host defense
1. resistance to infection
2. microbial clearance
3. antigen-specific memory
2 parts of wound healing?
promoting cell division and growth
2 parts of maintaining cellular homeostasis
clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells
killing neoplastic cells
2 aparts to tissue remodeling
what does immune system do in management of microbial symbionts
effects microbial colonization of mucosal surfaces
what type of receptors are used in the innate response and where are they encoded?
Pattern Recognition Receptors or PRR
2 broad types of Adaptive receptors?
t cell receptors
How are adaptive receptors encoded?
allows for wide differentiation and recognition of variety of pathogens
What are the localized biological effects of acute inflammation?
vascular permeabilization, edema, leukocyte infiltration, fever
Give the 4 steps in Acute Inflammation
1. activation of macrophages and/or mast cells
2. production of eicosanoids and chemical messengers that act locally
3. production of cytokines that carry signals to other organs
4. production of chemokines that recruit leukocytes
In acute inflammation, how are macrophages and/or mast cells activated?
1. PRR mediated sensing of microbe/self
2. activation of complement system
leads to release of soluble factors that propagate inflammatory response
what do eicosanoids and chemical messengers do?
induce local vasodilation
activate platelets for tissue repair
sensitize pain neurons
smooth muscle contraction
help recruit neutrophil
cytokines stimulate the acute phase response leading to three effects from liver, hypothalamus, bone marrow, and fat/muscle tissue...
release of proteins (liver) for complement activation
neutrophil mobilization for phagocytosis (bone marrow)
inc. body temperature (hypothalamus)
protein and energy mobilization to inc. body temp (fat/musle)
What cell type do chemokines attract to site of inflammation?
What is the second phase of the immune response?
what three cell types initiate the effector response
macrophages (PRR), neutrophils (PRR), dendritic cells (PRR)
how do DC initiate adaptive immune response?
DC take up Ag, move to lymphoid organs, initiates adaptive response
what do T cells do once they are activated?
migrate to infected tissue via chemokines and cytokines
produce cytokines and activate macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells to kill pathogen
what do b cells do once they are activated
produce antibodies that promote phagocytosis of microbe
what lymphocytes become memory cells?
B and T lymphocytes
What the three phases of the immune response?
1. Acute inflammation
2. Effector Response
3. Immunological memory
What is the goal when designing an effective vaccine?
stimulate immunological memory
minimize inflammation from first two phases (acute inflammation and effector response)
what are the two major components of vaccines
1. specific Ag - characteristic of pathogen, but not found elsewhere
2. adjuvant - elicit innate immune activation
what are the four desired responses from a vaccine?
1. lag phase before response is detected (means innate happened)
2. short-lived primary response (effector worked)
3. strong, long lasting secondary response (immunological memory
4. specificity for immunizing antigen
give three problems with vaccines
1. difficult to produce against pathogens that mutate antigens
2. easier to stimulate adaptive than cytotoxic so hard to make vaccines against pathogens that are intracellular
3. concerns about safety of adjuvants and source of specific Ag
chemokines generally refer to what?
proteins that induce a chemotactic response