Immune System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immune System Deck (43):
1

Pathogens

Things that cause disease.
Bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoans, multicellular parasites, prions

2

Bacteria

single cell organism, intracellular or extracellular parasite. Some have external, sticky polysaccharide capsule or release enzymes or toxins that interfere with function of cells.

3

Viruses

(Not cells) DNA or RNA, obligate intracellular parasites, coated with protein. Virus directs infected cell to synthesize copies of coral RNA and DNA which infect surrounding cells.

4

Fungi

produce spores and release protolytic enzymes which case redness and swelling

5

Protozoans

Intracellular or extracellular parasites that disrupt cell function (Eukaryotic)

6

Multicellular parasites

worms. require host from which the take nourishment

7

Prions

protein fragments that affect central nervous system

8

Locations of immune cells

Lymphatic tissues (T, B, macrophages, NK) in secondary lymphatic structures like lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, MALT, nodules.
Select organs, fixed or wandering macrophages
Epithelial tissues of skin and mucosal membranes.
Connective CT. Mast cells

9

Cytokines

chemical messages released by cells

10

Interleukin

regulates/activates immune cells

11

Tumor necrosis factor

destroy tumor cells

12

Colony stimulating factor

stimulates leukopoesis in bone marrow, to increase synthesis of specific type of leukocyte.

13

Interferon

cells infected with virus can increase antiviral properties in close cells

14

Innate immunity 1st line of defense

Skin, mucus membranes, respiratory tract, GI Tract, Urogenital tract.

15

Innate immunity 1st line of defense: SKIN

Epidermis, dermis, normal flora, exfoliation, acid mantle, sebaceous glands, sweat gland secretions

16

Innate immunity 1st line of defense: MUCUS MEMBRANE

Epithelial and connective tissue, normal flora, mucus

17

Innate immunity 1st line of defense: RESPIRATORY TRACT

Nasal secretions, vibrissiae, cilia, coughing/sneezing

18

Innate immunity 1st line of defense: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

saliva, HCl,

19

Innate immunity 1st line of defense: UROGENITAL TRACT

urine, lactic acid

20

Secretions produced by skin and mucus membranes

Lysomes: antibacterial enzyme, Defensins: small protein that creates pores in plasma membranes of microbes.
Dermicidin: antibacterial/antifunal. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) binds with antigen

21

Other 1st lines of immunity

Lacrimal fluid, cerumen

22

Innate immunity 2nd Line of defense

nonspecific internal defenses'

23

Innate immunity 2nd Line of defense: NEUTROPHILS

phagocytic for bacteria. Can "respiratory burst: neutrophil puts vesicle with cytotoxic chemicals into its plasma membrane. THey degranulate, killing neutrophils and creating a kill zone, killing everything in the area.

24

Innate immunity 2nd Line of defense: MACROPHAGES

phagocytic for everything foreign.

25

Innate immunity 2nd Line of defense: BASOPHILS AND MAST CELLS

Basophils in blood, mast cells in CT. Secrete pro inflammatory chemicals, histomines, and heparin

26

Histomines

vasodialates

27

Heparin

Anticoagulant

28

Innate immunity 2nd Line of defense: NK CELLS

Destroy virus/bacteria in cells and release granzymes causing apoptosis

29

Innate immunity 2nd Line of defense: EOSINOPHILS

Target parasites.Phagocytic for allergens, antigen/antibody complexes

30

Interferons

1. signal neighboring cells to increase microbial enzymes.
2. stimulate NK cells to induce apoptosis
3. attract macrophages to perform phagocytosis

31

Complement System

1. Opsonization: marks pathogen for phagocytosis by binding to a pathogen
2. inflammation: complement attracts and activates leukocytes in area with inflammation
3. Cytolysis: can form membrane attack complex that causes lysis of cell
4. elimination of immune complexes/immune clearance: bind to antigen, antibody complex, attach to erythrocyte and transports it to liver or spleen.

32

Fever

Infected cells or immune cells release priogens which tell hypothalamus to increase body temperature.
1. increase interferon activity
2. repress microbial replication
3. increase BMR, helps with tissue repair and clearance

33

Inflammation

1. damaged cells release chemotactic factors and pro inflammatory chemicals (histamine, and heparin)
2. vascular changes: vasodialation due to heparin. Increase permeability due to intercellular cleft. Display cell adhesion molecules.
3. Recruit WBC. Neutophils first, macrophages next. Margination: CAM binds to WBCS and slow down. Diapedesis: WBC squeeze through intercellular cleft and enter tissue. They follow chemotaxis to site of injury and release more to call molecule.
4. Delivery of plasma: Brings plasma proteins, increase interstitial fluid to wash area. Becuome exudate and picks up foreign particles, drains into lymphatic capillaries to lymphatic vessel to lymph nodes

34

Cells in Adaptive immunity

T-lymphocytes: cell mediate immunity
B-lymphocytes: humeral immunity
Antigen presenting cell (ATC) process and present antigen to lymphocytes.

35

MHC 1

major histocompatability molecule every cell

36

MHC II

major histocompatibility molecule: cell that beome APC (macrophages, B-cells)

37

Lifecycle T-Cells: formation and selection

Formation and selection (red bone marrow, thymus)
Positive: bind to MHC? no=destroyed, yes=survive
negative: bind to self? yes=destroyed, no=destroyed
2% survive and selectively lose CD8 or CD4.
CD4= helper T
CD8= cytotoxic cell

38

Lifecycle T-Cells: T Helper cells: activation and colonial selection

1. Th recognized antigen present in MHC II
2. Th produces and binds ILs (Stimulates Th)
3. Clonal selection: Th effector cells, or Tm memory cells

Effector Response: Release ILs

39

Lifecycle T-cells: Tc cells: activation, clonal selection

1. Bind MHC I with antigen
2. Ils from activated Helper T cells stimulate Tc
3. clonal selection: Tc effector cells, or ™ memory Cells
Effector response: release perferins to punch holes in plasma membrane, inject granzymes to induce apoptosis

40

B-cells lifecyle

activation: 1. several free antigens bind BCR an receptor form receptor cross link. Bcell process and present antigen in MHC II molecule, bind to T(h).
2. T(h) release Ils that bind to B-cell
Clonal selection: form plasma cells, release antibodies, form B(m) cells
Effector response
1. Netralization: antibodies cover epitopes
2. agglunation: dumping anti gents together for large particles
3. Precipitation: climbing together small particles like toxins

Enhance,
1. complement fixation: complement binds to fixed region of antibody.
2. opsonization: mark for removal by phagocytosis
3. activation of NK cells

41

Antibody binding antiget causes

1. Netralization: antibodies cover epitopes
2. agglunation: dumping anti gents together for large particles
3. Precipitation: climbing together small particles like toxins

42

Antibodies enhance

1. complement fixation: complement binds to fixed region of antibody.
2. opsonization: mark for removal by phagocytosis
3. activation of NK cells

43

Natural vs artificial and active vs passive

nature, snthetical encounter. Active, from someone