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Flashcards in Immunity & Antibodies Deck (17):

What's the difference between naturally acquired and artificially acquired active immunity? (2)

1. Naturally acquired = during infection
2. Artificially acquired = received from vaccines


What is the part in vaccines that helps give us immunity and how? (2)

1. Vaccines “prime” the immune system with weakened antigens
2. Still able to stimulate antibody production


What do vaccines spare us from compared to naturally acquired immunity?

Spare us from the signs and symptoms of the disease that would otherwise occur during primary response


Define: passive immunity

Immunity acquired through antibodies that are obtained by human or animal donor (eg. fetus)


Where do immunogloblins come from? (2)

1. Secreted by activated B cells
2. Plasma offspring in response to an antigen


Describe the structure of an antibody. (3)

1. Consists of 4 amino acid chains linked together by disulfide bonds
2. Each chain has a variable region (V) at one end
3. Each chain has a constant region at the other end


What's the difference between the V region and C region? (2)

1. V = forms an antigen-binding site to fit specific antigens
2. C = determines the type of antibody that will be formed


List the 5 antibody classes. (5)

1. IgM
2. IgA
3. IgD
4. IgG
5. IgE


Which antibodies are monomers and what makes them monomers? (2)

1. IgD, IgG, and IgE
2. They have the same basic V shape structure = monomers


Which antibody is the most abundant in the blood plasma?



What is special about IgG?

It is the only antibody that can cross the placenta barrier (passive process)


What does IgE trigger?

Allergy reactions


Does IgA occur as monomers or dimers?



What is a dimer?

2 linked monomers


Where is IgA found and why? (2)

1. Found in the mucous and secretions (secretory)
2. Prevents pathogen entry


How many monomers is IgM composed of and what is this called? (2)

1. IgM is a huge, 5-linked monomer
2. Pentamer


List and briefly describe the 4 ways by which antibodies inactivate antigens. (4)

1. Complement fixation → binds to antibodies attached to cellular targets
2. Neutralization → binds to exotoxins (chemicals secreted by bacteria
3. Agglutination → clumps to foreign cells
4. Precipitation → cross-linking process in which antigen-antibody complexes become so large that they become insoluble and settle out of solution (Soluble antibody + soluble antigen = insoluble precipitate)