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Flashcards in Immunity & Disease Deck (44):
1

What kind of things does our immunity protect against?

- bacteria
- virus
- fungi
- toxins
- cancer

2

Our immune system distinguishes self from non-self. what are the two main pathways used to do this?

- innate
- adaptive

3

What is innate immunity?

-defence mechanisms present even before infection or activated
- works in non-specific way

4

What are examples of defences in innate immunity?

- skin and mucous membranes
- phagocytic cells (neutrophils, macrophages)
- inflammation
- fever

5

What are examples of defences in adaptive immunity?

- cell-mediated immunity ( activation of phagocytes, antigen specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes)
- humoral immunity

6

How soon is innate immunity?

0-12 hours after infection

7

how soon is adaptive immunity?

12 hours to 7 days

8

Give 2 examples of non-specific defences.

-intact skin
- mucus and cilia

9

How does skin act in immunity?

- outer layer of keratin acts as mechanical barrier
- Dead skin cells constantly slough off - hard for invading bacteria to colonize
- sweat and oils contain anti-microbial chemicals

10

How does the mucous membrane act in immunity?

- normal flow of mucus washes bacteria and virus off mucus membrane
- cilia move bacteria (in respiratory tract)
- acid in the stomach and vagina
- enzymes in saliva and eye

11

How do chemical barriers such as proteins work in immunity?

proteins
- complement - works with other defence mechanisms of the body
- interferons - inhibit the replication of many viruses

12

Granulocytes such as neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils help with immunity how?

- remove dead cells and micro-organisms
- attracted by an inflammatory response of damaged cells

13

Monocytes such as macrophages help with immunity, how?

- in tissue which serves as filters for trapping microbes
- stimulate specific immune response (antigen - presenting)
- release protein signals (interleukin 1 and 6 )

14

what is the difference between the times and macrophages compared to granulocytes?

- macrophages live longer
- normally arrive later than granulocytes

15

What are the non-specific responses to infection?

fever
pain, swelling and redness
acute-phase proteins released from liver

16

Why do we get fever with infection?

- because most bacteria grow optimally at temp below body temp

17

why do we get pain, swelling and redness with infection?

increasing capillary permeability
promoting blood flow
bring more phagocytic cells

18

Why is their an acute-phase of proteins released from the liver?

- to bind to bacteria and activate complement proteins

19

specific immunity relies on antigens, what are these?

specific substances found in foreign microbes

20

Where are lymphocytes produced?

in bone marrow

21

Where do B-cells mature?

in bone marrow and then concentrate in lymph nodes and spleen

22

Where do T-cells mature?

thymus

23

B and T- cells mature and then circulate in the blood and lymph, why is this important?

circulation ensures they come into contact with pathogens and each other

24

What are the functions of B-cells ?

- secrete antibodies (humoral immunity)
- recognise pathogens outside cells

25

What are the functions of T-cells ?

- recognise antigen presented by major histocompatibility comples (class 1 and 2 )
- directly attack invaders (cytotoxic, CD8, MHC I )
-recognise pathogens that have entered cells
- also help B-cells (helper cells, CD4, MHC II)

26

What do cytotoxic T-cells do?

- seek out and destroy any antigens in the system and destroy microbes 'tagged' by antibodies
- some can recognise and destroy cancel cells

27

What do helper T-cells do?

- stimulate B-cells
- Activate cytotoxic cells and macrophages to attack infected cells

28

How do T-cells recognise an invader?

by protein marker on cell surface
- will bring to helper T-cell for ID
- if helper T-cells recognises as 'not-self' it will launch immune response

29

What happens to helper T-cells in HIV?

destroys helper T cells

30

How do helper T-cells signal an immune response?

Helper T-cells (CD4) stimulated by antigen
- cytokines to stimulate B cell division

31

What do B-cells produce?

- antibodies
- glycoproteins
- igG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD

32

How do B-cells act in immune response?

- opsonisation, bind and block (agglutinate), stimulate complement
- bind to antigen - plasma cells- more antibody
- or become memory cells

33

B-cells can become memory cells, what are these?

cells that remain ready to divide rapidly if an invasion occurs again

34

What may make a person have immune deficiencies?

- chemotheraphy/drugs
- HIV
- splenectomy
- bone marrow dysfunction

35

What may occur if a persona immune system is hyperactive ?

- allergy (hypersensitivity)
- auto-immune
- overreaction to pathogen

36

What does HIV infect?

CD4 and T cells

37

what are the stages of progression in HIV ?

- infection
- latency
- AIDS

38

What are examples of causes of secondary immunodeficiency?

- malnutrition
- burns
- uremia
- diabetes mellitus
- immunotoxic meds
- self-medication of recreational drugs and alcohol
- AIDS

39

Hypersensitivity is excessive immune reaction against harmless antigens. What are examples of these?

asthma
rhinitis (hay fever)
allergies ( peanut)

40

What is a conditional example of over reaction to pathogen ?

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

41

What happens in autoimmunity?

failure of an organism in recognising its own parts as 'self'
leading to an immune response against its own cells and tissues

42

What are examples of autoimmune diseases?

type 1 diabetes mellitus
coeliac disease
multiple sclerosis
Hashimotos thyroiditis

43

How can we manipulate our immune system ?

suppress immune system - organ transplant (increased susceptibility to infection)
Immunotheraphy for cancer
vaccination

44

vaccinations is to stimulate own immune system to elicit adaptive immune response, prevent further infection...what does this rely on ?

success depends on herd immunity