Immuno iBook (don't add more) Flashcards Preview

Block 2 > Immuno iBook (don't add more) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immuno iBook (don't add more) Deck (72):
1

ultrasound is a wave with a frequency ABOVE

waves used for medical purposes have a range of

20,000 Hz


1 to 30 MHz
(M = million)

2

time is converted into info about what

distance (location of tissue)

3

amplitude is converted into info about what

brightness

4

wavelength determines what

higher frequency means what

image quality

higher image quality

5

what is the type of tissue that results in the fastest loss of wave strength

WHY

LUNG

6

read: wave speed is constant throughout the human body

-

7

loss of wave strength is called attenuation

expressed in units of

dB/cm

8

higher dB/cm, the (less/more) strength has been lost

higher dB/cm, the MORE strength has been lost

9

where does sound travel easily (rank 1 2 3)

hardest (rank 1 2 3)

1 water (easiest)
2 fat
3 soft tissue

1 lung (hardest)
2 bone
3 air

10

white, black, attenuation REL

black = low attenuation

white = opp

11

read: gray = some is reflected, some goes thru

EXAMPLE of partial propagator and partial reflector

ex: soft tissue

12

adj for low attenuation/black = propagator

adj for high attenuation/white = ??

reflector

13

higher frequency means ("") penetration

less

read: use for more superficial things

14

gain refers to (depth/brightness)

brightness

15

echocardiogram
blue dot should be where

for all other ultrasounds, should be OPP

right
upper corner of screen

16

Antigens are what

-Proteins or other molecules like polysaccharides that are FOREIGN (bacteria, toxin) and that indicate what needs to be cleared
-read: drugs can also be antigens; our own molecules can be antigens (self-antigen)

17

What is the difference bt the primary and secondary lymphoid organs?

1’ : lymphocytes develop here
2’ : lymphocytes are activated here

18

Within the secondary lymphoid organs, where can you find B cells? T cells?

B-follicles
T-paracortex of LN or PALS in spleen

19

Read: B cells bind antigen DIRECTLY
T cells bind antigen via APCs

-

20

Which cells are the FIRST cells to respond to an infection?

Neutrophil

21

Lymph: brings antigens from “” to “”
Spleen: ?

L: antigens FROM tissues to LN
Spleen: antigens FROM blood to spleen

22

Which cell defends against parasites?

Eosinophil

23

B cell receptor is ALSO called (2)

Antibody
Immunoglobulin

24

Which cells are involved in allergic rxn?

Eosinophil
Basophil (MAIN)

25

What cells are in the granulocyte category

-Basophil
-eosinophil
-neutrophil

26

Which is the MOST common WBC

Neutrophil

27

Which WBC contains inflammatory mediators like histamine?

Basophil

28

DCs in skin - name?

Langerhans

29

NK kill what cells

your own infected cells

30

which class of bacteria have LPS in cell wall

gram negative

31

what is the most imp kind of PPR that I should know?

TLR

32

describe where each is situated in an opsonization process
-Ab
-phagocyte
-bacteria

Bacteria:Ab

phagocytes recognize Ab

bind to Ab

that's how bacteria is eliminated

33

PRR binding to PAMP, other than triggering phagocytosis, triggers what

changes in gene expression, leading to protein production (cytokine, enzymes, etc)

34

which cell in the innate system kills viruses

NK cells

35

how do you know whether a cell has been infected with a virus?

how does this affect NK cell?

decrease in MHC class 1

decreased inhibitory receptor binding by NK cell, allowing activation of cell killing

36

type 1 interferon types

IFN alpha or beta

37

function of IFN alpha or beta

in uninfected cells, induce production of enzymes that inhibit viral replication

38

which Ab activate classical pathway of complement

IgG and IgM

39

read: all steps after C3 convertase generation are the same

-

40

"" and "" = C5 convertase

C3b and C3 convertase

41

MHC genes are referred to as "" genes in humans

HLA

42

Asthma attacks are due to "" cells at this level of the respiratory system

smooth muscle cells
terminal bronchioles

43

At what phase will RBC stop dividing?

orthochromatic erythroblast

44

on which side of epiglottis can you find both types of epithelium

respiratory

45

vitiligo/albinism is an autoimmune disease

vitiligo

46

contrast vitiligo and albinism

v: melanocytes are destroyed
a: down tyrosinase -> prevents melanin production

47

in blood vessels, you find smooth muscle in which layer

tunica media

48

Naive B cells express what Ab on its surface

IgM and D

49

blood thymus barrier is found in (cortex/medulla) near what

cortex
near arteries

50

primary follicles are what color compared to secondary

BLUE with no pale zone

51

what MALT is partially encapsulated

tonsil

52

aortic stenosis will cause BP to be (lower/higher) than normal BP

lower

53

At rest, what two forces oppose one another to produce the slight negative pressure in the pleural cavity?

lung elasticity-force that would collapse the lung
thoracic wall-force that prevents collapse

54

why internal thoracic arteries can be harvested without causing the intercostal muscles to be starved for
oxygen

internal thoracic artery -> anterior IC artery (somewhere after, it divides into musclo and superior epi)

posterior and anterior anastomose; therefore posterior fills in the gap

55

narrowing of the airways has its greatest effect in the terminal bronchioles bc ?

there is no cartilage to support the terminal bronchioles.

56

When do you hear lub?

dub?

lub = before diastolic (lower)
dub = AFTER the systolic (higher)

read: lub/dub are located where the curve changes direction

57

pleural cavity is experiencing pneumothorax - what is its intrapleural pressure

P = 0

58

cyanosis def

a bluish discoloration of the skin resulting from poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of the blood

59

junctional diversity enables different ARM to be produced from what

same gene segments

60

"with differential" means you are measuring what

# of WBC in each category
-BEN etc

61

read: neutrophil can LOOK like a monocyte, but this a type of neutrophil where there are 3 slight blobs that are connected together

-

62

how do you tell apart a monocyte FROM a lymphocyte

-it is big
-it has a kidney shaped nucleus

63

monocytes are found where
macrophages are found where

mono-blood
macro-tissue

64

platelets come from what

megakaryocytes

65

how do you know the CORRECT size of RBC (compare it to what)

similar to lymphocyte nucleus

66

nucleated RBC should/should not appear in peripheral blood

should NOT

67

normal neutrophils have how many lobes

3-5 lobes

68

white cell progenitors (blasts) should be where
NEVER where
when does the never case happen

should = bone marrow
never = peripheral blood
never = leukemia

69

where can you find megakaryocytes

in the bone marrow

70

in bone marrow, what's the distribution of cells and fat

50% cells
50% adipose

71

plasma cell should NOT be found where

Not in peripheral blood

72

how does the lining of HEV differ from that of normal blood vessels

HEV lined by cuboidal
normal BV lined by squamous