Flashcards in Immunohematology Chapter 1 Deck (57):
Response by lymphocytes in response to antigen exposure; response is specific for the stimulating antigen.
Stimulation of antibody production by direct antigen contact.
Clumping of red blood cells or particulate matter resulting from the interaction of the antibody and the corresponding antigen.
One or more forms of a gene that occupies a specific locus on a chromosome.
Antibody response stimulated by secondary exposure to an antigen; the response is accentuated and a rapid rise in antibody is exhibited.
Proteins produced in response to stimulation by an antigen and interacts with the stimulating antigen.
Chemical substance that prevents or delays the clotting (coagulation) of blood.
Biochemical substance recognized as foreign; stimulates an immune response.
Antibodies found either in the serum or on the cells that are unanticipated or not found under normal circumstances.
Antibodies directed against one's own red cell antigens.
Immunity involving cellular components such as macrophages, natural killer cells, T lymphocytes, and cytokines.
Substances secreted by cells that are then involved in an inflammatory response.
A series of proteins in the serum that are activated sequentially; following activation, bacterial and red cell lysis may occur.
Chemical mediators that stimulate tissue response to invading pathogens.
Phase of antibody production where the level of detectable antibody is decreasing due to catabolism.
Mature red blood cell; cell that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Soluble antigen and soluble antibody combine to "fall out" of solution in flakes.
Recognized by the immune system as non-self.
Graft versus host disease (GVHD)
Functional immune cells received from a donor that become engrafted in the recipient; these cells then recognize the recipient as "foreign" and mount an immunologic attack.
A small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein.
The clumping of red blood cells; used to visualize antigen-antibody reactions.
Disruption of the membrane of a red blood cell; results in release of the contents into the plasma.
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA)
Antigens present on leukocytes and tissues. Genes that code for these antigens are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene systems.
Immune response resulting in the production of antibodies.
Antibody produced by direct stimulation with an antigen.
Synonym for antigen; substance that prompts the generation of antibodies and can cause an immune response.
Gamma globulin protein found in blood or bodily fluids and used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses.
Study of blood related antigens and antibodies as applied to situations in blood band and the transfusion service.
Study of components and processes of the immune system.
First line of defense for invading pathogens; cells and mechanisms that defend the host from invasion by other organisms; a non-specific defense.
First phase of an immune response: the level of antibody is not detectable by testing.
White blood cells
Second phase of an immune response; antibody levels steadily increase in a linear fashion.
Mononuclear leukocyte that mediates cellular and humoral immunity.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
A group of linked genes on Chromosome 6 that determine the expression of complement proteins and leukocyte antigens.
Leukocytes involved in phagocytosis and antigen presenting; these include monocytes (circulating cells) and macrophages (fixed cells).
Antibody produced without known exposure to the antigen.
Antibody administered to an individual.
Liquid portion of whole blood containing water, electrolytes, glucose, proteins, fats, and gases; refers also to the liquid portion of a blood sample collected with an anticoagulant.
Response phase where antibody production is constant and detectable at stable levels.
System possessing multiple allelic forms at a single locus.
A granulocytic white blood cell that phagocytizes invading microorganisms to provide protection to the host.
Formation of an insoluble compound when soluble ions in separate solutions are combined. The insoluble compound settles out of solution as a solid. The solid is called a precipitate.
Antibody response following initial antigen exposure.
An inactive enzyme precursor; requires a chemical change to become active.
Incomplete lattice formation with a lack of agglutination; results from antibody excess in comparison to antigen.
Resistant to ordinary treatment.
Coin like stacking of red cells in the presence of abnormal plasma proteins.
(GGLO) Secondary response (anamnestic response)
Antibody response that follows any antigen exposure other than initial exposure.
Liquid portion of the blood after coagulation.
Solid phase adherence
Testing method where on component of testing is adhered (attached) to a solid phase such as a microtiter plate; the patient's sample is added; a final assessment is made by examination of the test wells of the plate.
T cytotoxic (Tc) Cells
A sub-group of lymphocytes that kill other cells.
T helper (Tb) cells
A sub-group of lymphocytes that play an important role in activating and directing other immune cells.
Anucleate cell fragments called platelets; these cells play a key role in blood clotting.
Measurement of antibody strength by testing its reactivity with decreasing amounts of the corresponding antigen; reciprocal of the highest dilution that shows agglutination represents the titer.
Difference in charge density between the inner and outer ion cloud surrounding the surface of the red blood cells in an electrolyte solution.