Immunohematology Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

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1

Acquired immunity

Response by lymphocytes in response to antigen exposure; response is specific for the stimulating antigen.

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Active immunization

Stimulation of antibody production by direct antigen contact.

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Agglutination

Clumping of red blood cells or particulate matter resulting from the interaction of the antibody and the corresponding antigen.

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Allele

One or more forms of a gene that occupies a specific locus on a chromosome.

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Anamnestic response

Antibody response stimulated by secondary exposure to an antigen; the response is accentuated and a rapid rise in antibody is exhibited.

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Antibody

Proteins produced in response to stimulation by an antigen and interacts with the stimulating antigen.

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Anticoagulant

Chemical substance that prevents or delays the clotting (coagulation) of blood.

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Antigen

Biochemical substance recognized as foreign; stimulates an immune response.

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Atypical antibodies

Antibodies found either in the serum or on the cells that are unanticipated or not found under normal circumstances.

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Autoantibodies

Antibodies directed against one's own red cell antigens.

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Cell-mediated immunity

Immunity involving cellular components such as macrophages, natural killer cells, T lymphocytes, and cytokines.

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Chemical mediators

Substances secreted by cells that are then involved in an inflammatory response.

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Complement

A series of proteins in the serum that are activated sequentially; following activation, bacterial and red cell lysis may occur.

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Cytokines

Chemical mediators that stimulate tissue response to invading pathogens.

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Decline phase

Phase of antibody production where the level of detectable antibody is decreasing due to catabolism.

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Erythrocyte

Mature red blood cell; cell that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.

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Flocculation

Soluble antigen and soluble antibody combine to "fall out" of solution in flakes.

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Foreign

Recognized by the immune system as non-self.

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Graft versus host disease (GVHD)

Functional immune cells received from a donor that become engrafted in the recipient; these cells then recognize the recipient as "foreign" and mount an immunologic attack.

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Hapten

A small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein.

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Hemagglutination

The clumping of red blood cells; used to visualize antigen-antibody reactions.

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Hemolysis

Disruption of the membrane of a red blood cell; results in release of the contents into the plasma.

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Human leukocyte antigens (HLA)

Antigens present on leukocytes and tissues. Genes that code for these antigens are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene systems.

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Humoral immunity

Immune response resulting in the production of antibodies.

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Immune antibody

Antibody produced by direct stimulation with an antigen.

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Immunogen

Synonym for antigen; substance that prompts the generation of antibodies and can cause an immune response.

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Immunoglobulin

Gamma globulin protein found in blood or bodily fluids and used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses.

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Immunohematology

Study of blood related antigens and antibodies as applied to situations in blood band and the transfusion service.

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Immunology

Study of components and processes of the immune system.

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Innate immunity

First line of defense for invading pathogens; cells and mechanisms that defend the host from invasion by other organisms; a non-specific defense.

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Lag phase

First phase of an immune response: the level of antibody is not detectable by testing.

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Leukocytes

White blood cells

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Log phase

Second phase of an immune response; antibody levels steadily increase in a linear fashion.

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Lymphocyte

Mononuclear leukocyte that mediates cellular and humoral immunity.

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Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

A group of linked genes on Chromosome 6 that determine the expression of complement proteins and leukocyte antigens.

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Mononuclear Phagocytes

Leukocytes involved in phagocytosis and antigen presenting; these include monocytes (circulating cells) and macrophages (fixed cells).

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Natural antibody

Antibody produced without known exposure to the antigen.

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Passive antibody

Antibody administered to an individual.

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Plasma

Liquid portion of whole blood containing water, electrolytes, glucose, proteins, fats, and gases; refers also to the liquid portion of a blood sample collected with an anticoagulant.

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Plateau phase

Response phase where antibody production is constant and detectable at stable levels.

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Polymorphic

System possessing multiple allelic forms at a single locus.

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Polymorphonuclear neutrophil

A granulocytic white blood cell that phagocytizes invading microorganisms to provide protection to the host.

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Precipitation

Formation of an insoluble compound when soluble ions in separate solutions are combined. The insoluble compound settles out of solution as a solid. The solid is called a precipitate.

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Primary response

Antibody response following initial antigen exposure.

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Proenzyme

An inactive enzyme precursor; requires a chemical change to become active.

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Prozone phenomenon

Incomplete lattice formation with a lack of agglutination; results from antibody excess in comparison to antigen.

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Refractory

Resistant to ordinary treatment.

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Rouleaux

Coin like stacking of red cells in the presence of abnormal plasma proteins.

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(GGLO) Secondary response (anamnestic response)

Antibody response that follows any antigen exposure other than initial exposure.

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Serum

Liquid portion of the blood after coagulation.

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Solid phase adherence

Testing method where on component of testing is adhered (attached) to a solid phase such as a microtiter plate; the patient's sample is added; a final assessment is made by examination of the test wells of the plate.

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T cytotoxic (Tc) Cells

A sub-group of lymphocytes that kill other cells.

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T helper (Tb) cells

A sub-group of lymphocytes that play an important role in activating and directing other immune cells.

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Thrombocytes

Anucleate cell fragments called platelets; these cells play a key role in blood clotting.

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Titer

Measurement of antibody strength by testing its reactivity with decreasing amounts of the corresponding antigen; reciprocal of the highest dilution that shows agglutination represents the titer.

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Zeta Potential

Difference in charge density between the inner and outer ion cloud surrounding the surface of the red blood cells in an electrolyte solution.

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Zone of equivalence

When both reactants are present in amounts to create optimal reaction conditions.