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Flashcards in immunology 1 Deck (17):
1

what organs and tracts are involved in the innate immune system

1. skin
2. GI tract
3. Respiratory tract

2

What are the mechanical defenses of the innate immune system

1. normal urine flow
2. tears
3. saliva
4. normal flora

3

what cells are part of the innate immune system

leukocytes:
1. monocytes
2. neutrophils
3. mast cells
4. eosinophils
5. basophils

4

what is a neutrophil

granulocyte that first responds to an area of damage or inflammation

5

what is an eosinophil

granulocyte that are activated by IgE that are activated by tissues infected with parasites

6

what is a mast cell

cell that releases inflammatory mediators (eg histamine, heparin, or serotonin)

7

what are the main functions of the compliment system in the immune response

1. lyse certain microorganisms and cells
2. to stimulate the chemotaxis of phagocytic cells
3. to coat (opsonize) foreign pathogens
4. clear immune complexes

8

what are the two different pathways to stimulate the complement cascade?

1. classic pathway- antibody binds to antigen
2. alternative pathway - C3b protein builds up and activates complement

9

what is the end result of the complement cascade

membrane attack complex

10

what is another way to word the 3 primary things the compliment system does

1. opsonization of pathogens
2. recruitment of inflammatory cells
3. killing of pathogens

11

what are traits of the adaptive immune system that makes it different form the innate immune system

1. specificity
2. mewmory
3. ability to amplify the immune response via cytokines
4. evolves with each subsequent infections

12

what are the two major arms of the adaptive immune system

1. humoral arm (antibodies)
2. cell mediated arm (t-lymphocytes)

13

what are T lymphocytes

specific for individual antigens

14

what are the 4 major subgroups of T cells

1. T helper cells (CD4+)
2. T cytotoxic cells (CD8+)
3. T suppressor cells (CD8+)
4. T memory cells (CD4+ or CD8+)

15

all CD4+ helper cells that are presented during immune response are bound with what protein

MHC II

16

what type of activation of CD4+ T helper cells secrete IL-2 and stimulate CD8+ cytotoxic cells

type I CD4+ helper cells

17

what type of activation of CD4+ T helper cells secrete other interleukins that stimulate B lymphocyte production of antibodies

type II CD4+ helper cells