Immunology 2: Tolerance and autoimmunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immunology 2: Tolerance and autoimmunity Deck (19)
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1

Recall 5 factors that influence risk of autoimmune disease

Gender
Infection
Diet
Stress
Microbiome

2

Recall 4 examples of auto-immune disease that resembles type 2 hypersensitivity

AI haemolytic anaemia
Goodpasture's (causes glomerulonephritis)
Grave's
Myasthenia gravis

3

What type of hypersensitivity reaction is at play in MS?

DTS Type IV

4

What is the antigen implicated in MS?

Myelin-basic protein proteolytic protein

5

Recall the 3 "a"s of tolerance

Aquired
Antigen-specific
Active

6

Which types of cells are involved in central tolerance?

T cells
Ab-secreting B cells

7

Summarise the selection of T cells

Positive selection: T cells that can't "see" MHC --> apoptosis
Negative selection: T cells that react too strongly to MHC --> apoptosis
Survival: T cells that "see" MHC weakly

8

Summarise the selection of B cells

- No self reaction --> migration to periphery
- Multivalency leading to too strong a reaction --> apoptosis
- Cell recgonises soluble auto-antigen --> migration to periphery
- weak interaction with soluble antigens --> survival (--> potential for AID)

9

What is anergy?

Absence of costimulation by CD40 on APC

10

Which gene is required for Treg development?

FOXP3

11

Recall the 3 mechanisms of peripheral tolerance

Anergy
Treg
Ignorance

12

Name the disease that results from a FOXP3 mutation

IPEX (Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy and x-linked inheritance syndrome)

13

Recall 2 immunologically-priveleged sites where peripheral tolerance occurs as a result of ignorance

Nervous system
Eye

14

Recall the pathophysiology of ophthalmia

Eye cells have never been tolerised to auto-antigen, and are MHC II neg
Physical trauma to eye --> lymph vessels leak antigen into the eye --> inflammation

15

What does APECED stand for?

Autoimmune
Poly
Endocrinopathy
Candidiasis
Ectodermak
Dystrophy

16

Recall the pathophysiology of APECED

Failure to delete T cells in the thymus due to mutations in AIRE gene

17

Recall 2 examples of where infection can lead to a breakdown of peripheral tolerance

MS
EBV

18

How can infection lead to a breakdown in peripheral tolerance?

1. Molecular mimickery
2. Lead to cytokine release, triggering inflammation

19

What name is given to AI hypothyroidism?

Hashimoto's