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Fundamentals Part 2 > Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunology Deck (90):
1

all blood cells arise from:

stem cells in bone marrow

2

Myeloid progenitors develop into which cells

monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils/mast cells

3

The innate Immune System includes

the cells arising from myeloid progenitors, NK cells & Complement System

4

the adaptive immune system includes:

lymphocytes

5

lymphocytes arise form

lymphoid progenitors

6

Cytokines functions:

as hormone like signals of T cell, recruit other cells to battle field, encourage cell growth, direction of cellular traffic

7

what causes stem cells to be self-renewal cells

at division, one daughter cell matures into a blood cell & the other becomes a new stem cell

8

what do increased "Blast" cells (immature) indicate on blood smear or bone marrow aspirate

leukemic state

9

What is our 1st line of defense

physical barriers- skin, mucus membranes

10

what is our 2nd line of defense

innate immune system- myeloid progenitor cells, complement system (nonspecific, always on)

11

what is our 3rd line of defense

adaptive immune system- T cells, Bcells (specific invaders)

12

when would B cells be referred to as Plasma Cells

when activated & producing antibodies

13

where are T cells derived from

Thymus

14

What subdivision of T cells are there

1. T helper cells (aka Th, CD4 cells)
2. Cytotoxic Lymphocytes or Killer T cells (CD8 cells)
3. Regulatory T cells

15

Where are B cells derived from

bursa or Bone Marrow

16

Distinguish between the monocyte/macrophage

monocytes released by bone marrow and travel in blood through endothelial lining of capillaries into tissues (where they become macrophage)

17

What are "dendritic cells" referred to

macropages in tissue

18

Kupffer cells refer to what type of immune cell? where?

macrophages in liver

19

How does the macrophage alert other immune cells to respond

displays some of the fragments of the invader onto its outside surface.... Antigen Presenting Cells; it also releases cytokines

20

What is a major role of macrophages in destroying invaders

Phagocytosis into a phagosome taken into cell and fuses with lysosome and digested.

21

What are "bands" on neutrophils indicative of

neutrophils without segmentation reflecting they are recently produced... an increased % on a blood smear may mean bacterial infection

22

What percent of neutrophils make up WBC

70%

23

What is a segmented neutrophil indicate

a mature neutrophil

24

What is normal % band forms of neutrophil (new cells)

1-3%

25

What would a "shift to the left" refer to when describing higher % neutrophil bands

bacterial infection

26

what are some other names of neutrophils

polys, PMN, segmented, and bands

27

How do NK cells kill infected cells

instruct them to commit suicide (apoptosis)

28

How are macrophages different than neutrophils?

Neutrophils are not APC (antigen presenting cell)

29

How do NK cells recognize & attack foreign cells?

"self" markers so if a cell doesn't have a self antigen, attacks.... this is different from other lymphocytes that get a signal such as cytokine

30

Basophils are loaded with what that respond with allergies

histamine

31

What accounts for controlling the extremely powerful NK cells

two system "kill" and "don't kill"

32

What is a cousin cell to basophils that attempts to neutralize a parasitic invader

mast cell

33

What is Eosinophil's major role

allergic response & parasitic protection.... lots of granules

34

what is a pattern-recognition receptor...

as our species evolved, certain characteristic infectious organisms substances became recognized and receptors were formed on our immune cells for.... lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycans, DNA of bacteria

35

What is the most abundant compliment protein

C3

36

what does complement fixation refer to

when a protein attaches to abnormal surface to activate destruction

37

describe the membrane attack complex and what it does

complement cascade result in a production of MAC which opens a hole in bacteria/virus killing it

38

Describe the Lectin Activation Pathway

patterns of carbs/fats on surface of common pathogens (bacteria/fungi) activates mannose binding lectin (MBL-produced in liver) which in turn activates complement cascade

39

What is the "classic" complementary pathway

antibody-antigen complex activates complement

40

What is the alternate pathway to activate complement

C3 attach to "unprotected" cells... aka compliment activated on any cell not displaying right stuff on cell surface.

41

These cells coordinate immune response, identified by CD4 receptors, read MHCII of APC

Helper T cells

42

These cells are refered to as cytotoxic lymphocytes and are identifided on CD8 receptors, in order to activate-need input from helper t cell & read MHCI, very potent

Killer T cell

43

What are the cells responsible for cell mediated immunity

T cells (helper, killer, & regulatory)

44

what cells are responsible for humoral immunity (usually need input from helper T cells...

B cells

45

What is a problem arising from Regulatory T cells

autoimmune disease result from malfunction of Treg cells

46

Memory Cells role in immunity:

an activated lymphocyte that can now quickly & efficiently mount a response.

47

These cells are the basis for vaccines

memory cells

48

What is the most abundant immunoglobulin in SERUM

IgG

49

this is the only antibody that crosses placenta and is responsible for 3-6 months of immune protection in the newborn

IgG

50

Describe the MHC Class I

inform killer t cells about what's going on in cell. If virus invades, cell presents fragments on MHC proteins so it can be destroyed

51

Describe MHC class II

displayed by APC's only (APC-MHC II complex) intended only for helper t cells.

52

The antigen presenting cell is associated with which class of MHC

Class II

53

Class II MHC is associated with type of lymphocyte?

helper T cells

54

Class I MHC recruits which type of lymphocyte

Killer T cells (CD8)

55

This is the largest & 1st antibody produced in an immune response

IgM

56

This antibody is a great compliment fixer & opsonizer

IgM

57

This antibody guards against mucosal surfaces (respiratory, digestive, reproductive)

IgA

58

This is the most abundant immunoglobin produced

IgA

59

These antibodies secrete into milk of nursing mothers protecting babies

IgA

60

This immunoglobin is important in anaphylaxis and allergy

IgE

61

This immunoglobin responsible for clumping/agglutination of the bacteria that are swept out of body

IgA

62

bronchospasm, hypotension, & CV collapse are signs of this allergic response from IgE

Anaphylaxis

63

whats the most common immunoglobulin deficiency

IgA

64

How does IgE react to allergens

primes mast cell to degranulate (release histamine & other chemicals that increase capillary permeability)

65

immunocompromised patient

pt is purposely impaired immune system to prevent/delay rejection of a transplant (prednisone)

66

The HLA B-27 is associated with

ankylosing spondylitits (Bamboo Spine)

67

Name some examples of autoimmune disorders

Diabetes I, celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE (Lupus erythematous), myasthenia gravis, and sjogren's syndrome

68

What does the HLA represent

human leukocyte antigen system, is the MHC of leukocyte.... used for matching WBC's MHC when donating/etc

69

what is Sjogren's syndrome

autoimmune disease, cells attach and destroy salivary & lacrimal glands resulting in dry mouth and eyes (Type IV)

70

What vasoactive substances are released by a cellular response to infection

histamine, bradykinin, & serotonin

71

What are the hallmark findings for inflammatory response

Rubor, Dolor, Calor

72

Type I hypersensitivity would recruit which immunoglobulin

IgE & mast cell/basophil mediated

73

What are signs/symtoms of Type I hypersensitivity rxn

dyspnea, bronchospasm, urticarial, angioedema, visceral edema, hypotension

74

which hypersensitivity type is associated with an immediate response (5-30minutes)

Type I

75

this type of hypersensitivity is also called cell-mediated and is associated with T cells

Type IV

76

Tuberculosis is a classic example of what type of hypersensitivity rxn

Type IV

77

Poison oak belongs to which type hypersensitivity rxn?

Type IV

78

Which type is associated with autoimmune & infectious ds

type IV

79

Histoplasmosis (a fungal infection) is what type of hypersensitivity rxn

Type IV

80

What is severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

impairment of both humoral and cell mediated immunity, rare, can be fatal in infancy

81

What is X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA)

males begin to have recurrent bacterial infections in 1st year of life after maternal immunoglobulin disappear

82

What are some examples of secondary immunodeficiencies

AIDS ( low T cell levels) malnutrition, x-rays, immunosuppressant drugs (prednisone), decreased production of cytokines

83

What distinguishes between a primary or secondary immunodefiency

secondary is not caused by abnormalities in development or function of t & b cells... primary is

84

where is mannose binding lectin produced

liver

85

What would an activated mannose binding lectin do to elicit an immune response

activate a complement cascade

86

Which cells in a 'graft'(transfusion) would attack the recipient's cells, making HLA matching important for blood typing

Cytotoxic T cells

87

What cell malfunction would you associate with excessive light chain antibody disorder (multiple myeloma)

B cells

88

What is the cause of multiple myeloma

disfunction in the plasma (B cells) antibodies only produce the light chain portion of self...

89

Name the three pathways to activate complement

1. classic (antibody-antigen) 2. alternative (C3 protein attaches to any unprotected cell signaling complement 3. Lectin Activation-carbs/fats on surface of some pathogens activate production of mannose binding lectin from liver=activating complement)

90

Oral candidiasis would be an example of which type of hypersensitivity reaction

Type IV