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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (64):
1

Which immune cells are involved in antiviral immunity?

Antibodies
Cytokines - interferon alpha and beta
Cytotoxic T cells
Natural killer cells

2

Which immune cells are involved in parasite immunity?

Eosinophils, mast cells, basophils
Antibodies and B cells

3

Which immune cells are involved in intracellular parasites?

Antibodies and B cells
Cytotoxic T cells
Natural killer cells

4

Which immune cells are involved in extracellular parasites (bacteria/fungi)?

Neutrophils and macrophages
compliment
Antibodies
Cytotoxic T cells and Natural killer cells

5

Cytokines

Produced in response to infection, inflammation or tissue damage e.g. interferons, TNFa, chemokine, interleukins

6

Antibodies

Proteins produced in response to an antigen

7

NK cells

large lymphocytes which kill tutor cells, virally infected cells and antibody bound pathogens

8

What do NK look for?

MHC class I - if they don't find this they attack

9

Where do T and B cells mature?

In bone marrow

10

B cells

Production and secretion of antibodies

11

T cells

Defence against intracellular pathogens

12

Where are mast cells found?

Within tissue

13

Where are basophils and eosinophils found?

Circulate in blood and move to infected site when needed

14

Where are compliment proteins produced?

In hepatocytes

15

Name the the three phagocytes

Monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils

16

What do monocytes differentiate into?

Macrophages

17

Where are dendritic cells immature and mature?

Immature - peripheral tissue
Mature - secondary lymphoid tissue

18

Where is primary lymphoid tissue found?

Bone marrow and thymus

19

Where is secondary lymphoid tissue found?

Lymph nodes, spleen and mucosal associated lymphoid tissue

20

What are the humeral factors of the immune system?

Antibodies, acute phase proteins, compliment system proteins and cytokines

21

Innate immune system

macrophages, mast cells, NK cells, neutrophils and compliment

22

Adaptive immune system

T cells, B cells and antibodies

23

Direct contact

Receptor:Ligand activation

24

Indirect contact

When an injured cell releases cytokines to let the system know there is a problem

25

What do apoptotic cells attract with signals?

Macrophages

26

How can macrophages clear cells?

Via apoptosis and phagocytosis

27

What do inane immune cells express to communicate via PAMPs?

PRRS = pattern recognition receptors

28

How do phagosomes kill?

By creating a very acidic environment

29

How do pathogens kill?

By phaglosome or super activation of macrophages

30

How is macrophage activation enhanced?

By releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN gamma)

31

What do mast cells have a key role in?

Activation of macrophages

32

What do mast cells contain?

Granules - released when activated

33

Pro inflammatory mediators in acute inflammation

NO, histamines, prostoglandins
Cytokines
Chemokines

34

Pro-inflammatory mediators for pathogen killing

Anti-microbial peptides
Reactive oxygen species
Phagocytosis

35

Systemic effect of cytokines

acts on hypothalamus to produce more prostaglandin E = induces fever and increases neutrophil production

36

Cytokines, local effects?

Increase vascular permeability and endothelial cell activation

37

Chemokine, local effects?

Leukocyte recruitment and activation

38

Three ways neutrophils can kill?

Phagocytosis, degranulation or NETs

39

Which compliment is involved in pathogen killing?

C5b and C5a

40

Which compliment is involved in pathogen opsonisation?

C3b

41

Which compliment is involved in leukocyte recruitment?

C3a and C5a

42

What do C3a and C5a promote?

Inflammation

43

T-cell antigen receptor

Membrane bound protein heterodimer

44

B cell antigen receptor

Antibody

45

What do antigens defend agains?

Extracellular pathogens

46

How do B and T cells move?

Using integral and selectin

47

Where are B cells located within the lymph node?

Lymph node follicles

48

Where are T cells located within the lymph node?

Centre of the the lymph node

49

Which molecule presents a peptide antigen to a T cell?

MHC molecule (HLA in humans)

50

Which cells are MHC class II cells found?

On professional antigen presenting cells

51

Which cells are MHC class I cells found?

All cells

52

Professional antigen presenting cells?

Dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells

53

Which cells do MHC class I present to?

CD8+

54

Which cells do MHC class II present to?

CD4+

55

How are memory cells generated?

Through germination centre formation

56

Agglutination

When antibodies clump antigens together so they are easier to phagocytose as a group

57

IgM

First produced in an immune response - immune complex formation and compliment system activation

58

IgG

Most abundant antibody - foetal immune protection, opsonisation, NK activation

59

IgD

Antigen receptor for B cell activation - low levels

60

IgA

Second most abundant type - as a dimer it is passed through breast milk

61

IgE

Triggers allergic response

62

Which antibody is more predominant in an early adaptive response compared to a late?

Early = IgM
Late = IgG

63

What do CD4+ cells activate?

Helper T cells > Immune regulation

64

What do CD8+ cells activate?

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes > Kills infected host cell