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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (103)
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1

List the functions of complements

Chemotaxis
Opsonisation
B-cell stimulation
Membrane attack complexes

2

What 3 pathways are involved in the activation of the key C3 complement?

Lectin pathway
Classical pathway
Alternative pathway

3

Which complement pathway is spontaneous?

The alternative pathway

4

Which complement pathway involves;
antigen + mannose + MBL?

The lectin pathway

5

Which complement pathway involves;
antigens + antibodies + C1 complex?

The classical pathway

6

Which two complements are described as anaphylatoxins, meaning that they act as chemotaxis?

C3a and C5a

7

When are cytokines produced?

In response to infection ( they are pro-inflammatory)

8

List four types of cytokine

Chemokines
Interferons
Interleukins
TNFa

9

Which cytokines helps control and direct cell migration during an inflammatory response?

Chemokines

10

Which cytokine has anti-viral activity?

Interferons

11

Which cytokine induces apoptosis?

TNFa

12

What are the 6 signs of inflammation?
(4 latin origins and two others)

RUBOR (redness)
DOLAR (pain)
CALOR (heat)
TUMOR (swelling)

FEVER
LOSS OF FUNCTION

13

List primary lymphoid tissues

Bone marrow
Thymus

14

List secondary lymphoid tissues

Spleen
Tonsils
Peyer's Patches
Lymph nodes

15

List three phagocytic type cells

Monocytes
Macrophages
Neutrophils

16

What type of cell is CD4 and what type of cell is CD8?

CD4 - helper T cell (key regulator)
CD8 - Cytotoxic T cell (kills infected cells)

17

What does CD4 produce?

The cytokine interferon gamma

18

What are the 5 important types of antibodies?

IgA
IgD
IgE
IgG
IgM

19

What are the important points about IgM

It is the LARGEST and most EFFICIENT antibody
It is the PREDOMINANT antibody in an EARLY IMMUNE RESPONSE

20

What are the important points about IgG

It is the MOST ABUNDANT antibody and can protect NEWBORNS

21

What are the important points about IgD

It is in the LOWEST CONCENTRATIONS in the blood and is involved in B-CELL ACTIVATION

22

What is the important point about IgA

It is the main antibody present in SECRETIONS E.g breast milk

23

What are the important point about IgE

It is involved in ALLERGIC RESPONSES

24

The immune system is important in defending against 5 main different organism types. What are these?

BACTERIA
VIRUSES
FUNGI
PROTOZOA
WORMS

25

What are the two main organism types that B lymphocytes defend against?
What are the two main organism types that T lymphocytes defend against?

B - BACTERIA and VIRUSES

T- FUNGI and PROTOZOA

26

What are eosinophils and mast cells important in defence against?

PROTOZOA and WORMS

27

Which is the most important cell in terms of killing and degradation?

Neutrophils

28

State two important physiological changes in acute inflammation and the release of which substances cause this response

Increase in vascular permeability (causing leakage of plasma proteins - for inflammation) and vasodilation (causing increased blood flow)

Caused by release of histamines, nitric oxide and prostaglandins

29

Which is the first cell to appear and take action at the site of infection?

NEUTROPHILS

30

Which two ligands present on endothelium do neutrophils bind to?

ICAM and VCAM