Immunology: Antigens, T/B Cell Antigen Receptors, Clonal Expansion & T Cell and Their Functions - Dr. Hudig Flashcards Preview

Block 6 Week 1 > Immunology: Antigens, T/B Cell Antigen Receptors, Clonal Expansion & T Cell and Their Functions - Dr. Hudig > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunology: Antigens, T/B Cell Antigen Receptors, Clonal Expansion & T Cell and Their Functions - Dr. Hudig Deck (74):
1

T or F, measles are preventable with adaptive immunity?

true

2

What is this:
occurs in 1/1000 infected children.
10% mortality w/ encephalitis
preventable with adaptive immunity

acute measles encephalitis

3

T or F, the vaccine for measles contains live attenuated virus

T

4

What are the four types of pathogens?

bacteria
yeast and fungi
viruses
parasites

5

Is bacteria intracellular or extracellular?

can be both

6

Is yeast intracellular or extracellular?

extracellular

7

Are viruses intracellular or extracellular?

intracellular

8

Are parasites intracellular or extracellular?

can be both

9

T or F, adaptive immune mechanims differ for different pathogens

T

10

Which is worse, an extracellular pathogen or intracellular pathogen?

intracellular because its harder to kill

11

How do you kill an intracellular bacteria?

With TH1 which will emit interferon gamma that signals to macrophages to kill the cell

12

How do you kill extracellular bacteria?

neutrophils bind to antibodies n bacteria and kill it or use kuppfer cells (macrophages) in the liver

13

What are some common intracellular bacteria?

listeria, salmonella and shigella

14

(blank) is a ‘type II’ interferon secreted by T helper cells when they are activated after recognizing foreign antigens.

Interferon-gamma

15

Mycobacterium tuberculae cause (blank) . M. tuberculae live and replicate (blank) the macrophages that ingest them.

tuberculosis
inside

16

What are the antibodies that bind to yeast?

opsonins

17

How do you kill yeast and fungi?

antibody opsonizes the yeast/fungi and then are killed by neutrophils

18

How do you kill a virus?

CD8 cytotoxic T cells, infected cell dues and immature virions inactivate

19

Can antibodies help w/ killing viruses?

it depends on the virus, some antibodies can prevent viral entry into a persons cells

20

Where do you find plasmodium?

inside RBCs in a stage of malaria

21

How does your body react to Ascaris?

IgE and mast cellresponse so eosinophils will help out

22

What causes river blindness?

Onchocerca volvulus

23

What 2 cell types control viruses in innate immunity compared to adaptive immunity?

innate-> NK cells
adaptive-> Cytotoxic T (killer CD8 positive) lymphocytes

24

Describe adaptive immunity

specific, inducible, takes a long time (~ 5 days), involves T and B lymphocytes w/ specific receptor, Utilizes T and B receptors that are not directly genome encoded, generates memory, lasts the lifetime of the immune person, eliminates infections faster than innate immunity.

25

T or F, adaptive immunity eliminates infections faster than innate immunity?

T

26

What is a Tcell?

Require differentiation in the
thymus. Effectors of cell-mediated immunity.

27

What is a B cell?

differentiate in bone marrow. Secrete antibody proteins after encounter with their related antigen

28

What is an antigen?

foreign structures recognized by T cells, by B cells and by antibodies

29

What is an epitope?

the structures within antigens that bind to B and T cell receptors for antigens

30

What is impetigo?

a skin infection caused by staph and strept which colonizes skin damaged by a previous lesion.

31

who does impetigo usually attack and why is it worrisome?

children in warm, humid, dirty environments, it is very contagious

32

(blank) is a foreign substance that is specifically recognized by the immune system

antigen

33

T cell antigens are almost always (blank)

peptides from foreign proteins

34

HOw do antibodies recognize antigens?

specific protein, carbs or lipid sequences.

35

HOw do antibodies recognize strep pyogenes?

via its M proteins

36

How do T cells recognize antigens?

foreign peptides in MHC II for CD4 T helpers and foreign peptides in MHC I for CD8 T killers

37

What is a T cell antigen?

peptides from foreign proteins bind to MHC proteins and are recognzied by the T cell receptors

38

What is a B cell antigen?

any foreign substance that can bind to the immunoglobulin B cell receptor for antigen and to antibodies

39

T cell receptors have what property that allows them to bind to a foreign peptide at the same time as it binds to MHC?

dual recognition

40

TCRs always have how many chains?

2 chains

41

TCR have two chains, what can these chains be made up of?

either alpha and beta
or
gamme and delta

42

What kind of CD number to cytotoxic T lymphocytes have?

CD8

43

What kind of CD number do T helpers and other T cells have?

CD4

44

In circulation T cells are either (blank) positive, (blank) positive or neither

4
8

45

What does T helper cells and other T cells that arent CTLs have as co-receptor that will bind MHC II?

CD4

46

What do CTLs have that act as a co receptor to bind MHC I?

CD8

47

What do you find on ALL T cells? Why is this important to know?

CD3
cuz if something has CD3 on it, you automatically know it is a T cell AND it is a signalling molecule

48

What molecules found on the T cells are used to initiate signaling to the cell that an antigen has bound?

CD8, CD4, CD3

49

Can a T cell receptor recognize an antigen that is not hooked up to a MHC?

no it cannot

50

(blank) lymphocytes must recognize antigens and divide before they can provide the help required for T and B cell responses.

T cells

51

How long does it take for a T cell to divide?

6 hours

52

Explain how a pathogen comes in and then you end up with T cell proliferation

Pathogen comes in and gets presented by the antigen presenting cell. This APC then binds to its corresponding T cell recepetor. Clonal proliferation occurs. After 5 days there are enough clones with the ability to secrete cytokins and IL2 that the adaptive immunity can kick in.

53

What is IL-2?

it is a growth factor for all lymphocytes

54

How do B cells respond to an antigen?

B cells have an IgM single chain receptor that will bind an antigen if a T helper cell is present. The b cell then starts dividing and the clones differentiate and become plasma cells which secrete antibodies. They then move to the bone marrow and sit and secrete. A few cells will become memory cells and run around the body looking out for future attacks.

55

Why kinds of cytokines will b cells produce?

IL-2 , then once matured also IL 4

56

What kind of receptors do B cells have>

Immunoglobulin monomer (IgM)

57

How many chains do you need to hold an antigen?

2!!! in T and B cells

58

Describe the structure of the receptor of a B cell (IgM)

2 identical light chains and 2 identical heavy chains held together by disulfide bonds that form a hinge. There are three complementarity determing regions (CDRs) that hold the antigen to the receptor.

59

Constant regions of (blank) chains determine Ig Class and subclass

H

60

Light chains of human Ig's are either (blank) or (blank)

kappa or lambda

61

Describe the structure of an antibody

Ther is a antigen binding region and a crystallized fraction. The crystalized fraction binds to the cellular receptors of leukocytes.

62

Why are Fab and F(ab’)2 antibodies often used for diagnostic purposes?

Because it lacks an Fc region which means it wont bind to cellular receptors .

63

How do neutrophils recognize and antigen and eat it up?

via the Fc region of an antibody

64

How do you break the antigen binding region from the Fc region of the antibody and create 2 monomers?
How do you create 1 dimer?

via Papain protease
via pepsin protease

65

Antigens (Ag's) for B cells can be (blank) or (blank) determinans of foreign proteins or even (blank) created by proteolysis of self proteins.

conformational
linear
neoantigens

66

(blank) may promoto autoimmunity if self proteins are cleaved

neoantigens.

67

Can conformational determinant have their determinant lost by denaturation?

yes

68

Can linear determinants have their determinant lost by denaturation?

no

69

How do you get a neoantigenic determinant?

you take a self protein and splice into something that looks foreign and then your body things its a bad thing

70

Specific immune responses take (blank), then last

time

71

How come you have a lag in immune response when you get a shot and why are boosters awesome?

T helpers have to divide a lot before stimulating B cells. B cells have to divide a lot before making antibodies.
Boosters are awesome because it allows your immune system to make more antibodies to it.

72

how come when you get a vaccine you dont maintain your levels of IgM?

because IgM is an initial exposure immunoglobulin from B cells which eventually will diminish TO ZERO and instead IgG will be made and be left over to provide immunity.

73

Diverse T and B cells, each with a different and specific (blank)

receptor

74

(blank) lymphocytes make cytokines, kill or produce antibodies
(blank) lymphocytes persist

Effector
Memory