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Flashcards in Immunology FA chapter (no pharm) Deck (200)
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1

HLA type A3 is associated with what disease?

hemochromatosis

(=excess iron absorption from diet)

Don't confuse with HLA D3 (assoc'd w/ SLE, T1DM, Graves)

2

HLA type B27 is associated with what disease?

Psoriatic Arthritis

Ank spondylitis

arthritis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Reactive arthritis

(acronym: PAIR)

3

HLA type DQ2/DQ8 is associated with what disease?

 

Celiac

(if you have Celiac, you should go to Dairy Queen DQ not McD's)

4

HLA type DR2 is associated with what disease?

Mult sclerosis, hay fever, SLE, Goodpasture

5

HLA type DR3 is associated with what disease?

Type I DM, SLE, Graves

("I got DR3 and I can't see": T1DM -> diabetic retinopathy; Graves -> exopthalmos; SLE -> photosensitivity)

6

HLA type DR4 is associated with what disease?

Rheumatoid arthritis, Type I DM

(4 walls in a "rheum")

7

HLA type DR5 is associated with what disease?

Pernicious anemia --> B12 deficiency

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

8

MHC I and II: present antigens to what cells?

Present antigen fragments to T cells and bind TCRs.

9

MHC I presents what kind of antigens to what cells?

Presents endogenously synthesized antigens (ie viral) to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells

10

MHC II presents what kind of antigens to what cells?

Presents exogenously synthized proteins (ie bacterial proteins and viral capsid proteins) to CD4+ T helper cells

11

NK cells: what do they do

use perforin and granzymes to induce apoptosis of virally infected cells and tumor cells.

(only lymphocyte member of the innate/acute immune system)

12

what cytokines/proteins enhance the activity of NK cells? (5)

IL-2 from all T cells

IL-12 from macrophages & B cells

interferon-α, interferon-β from viral-infected cells

interferon-γ from Th1 cells

13

NK cells: 3 ways they are induced to kill target cells?

1. when exposed to a nonspecific activation signal on target cell

2. and/or the absence of MHC I on a target cell surface 

3. Fc region of a bound Ig binds CD16 on surface of NK & activates it. "antibody-dependent cell-mediated"

(all nucleated cells except RBCs express MHC I)

14

Major functions of B cells?

-recognize antigens

-undergo somatic hypermutation to optimize antigen specificity

-produce antibody (differentiate -> plasma cells to secrete immunoglobulins)

-maintain immuno memory (memory B cells)

15

Major functions of T cells?

-CD4+ T cells (HELPER) help B cells make antibody and produce cytokines

-CD8+ T cells (KILLER) kill virus-infected cells directly

-Delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity (Type IV)

-Acute and chronic cellular organ rejection

16

for the differentiation of T cells, where does the T cell precursor come from?

Bone marrow

17

what happens in the thymus in terms of differentiation of T cells?

-T cells that are positive for both CD4+ and CD8+ are separated into groups that are EITHER CD4+ OR CD8+

-Positive selection (cortex)

-Negative selection (medulla)

18

what is positive selection? where does it occur?

in the Thymic cortex

T cells that express TCRs capable of binding surface self MHC molecules survive.

19

what is negative selection? where does it occur?

Thymic medulla

T cells expressing TCRs with high affinity for self antigens undergo apoptosis

20

what happens to CD4+ T cells in the lymph nodes?

differentiate into Th1 cells, Th2 cells, Th17 cells, and Treg cells

(based on the influence of IL-12, IL-4, TGF-beta/IL-6, and TGF-beta)

21

what does IL-12 do in the lymph node?

induces CD4+ T cells to differentiate into Th1 cells

22

what does IL-4 do in the lymph node?

influences CD4+ T cells to differentiate into Th2 cells

23

what does the combination of TGF-beta and IL-16 do in the lymph node?

induces CD4+ T cells to differentiate into Th17 cells

24

what does TGF-beta do in the lymph node?

induces CD4+ T cells to differentiate into:

Tregs

Th17 cells (if IL-6 is present)

25

what are the 3 types of antigen-presenting cells?

1. B cells

2. Macrophages

3. Dendritic cells (Langerhans cell in skin = example of dendritic)

26

Process of activation for CD4+ T cell?

-Foreign body phagocytosed by dendritic cell

-Foreign antigen presented on MHC I and recognized by TCR on T helper cell. (signal 1)

-Costimulatory signal is given by the interaction of B7 and C28 (signal 2)

-Th cell activates and produces cytokines.

27

Process of activation for CD8+ T cell?

-Foreign body phagocytosed by dendritic cell

-Foreign antigen presented on MHC II and recognized by TCR on T killer cell. (signal 1)

-Costimulatory signal is given by the interaction of B7 and C28 (signal 2)

-Tc cell activates; recognizes & kills virus-infected cells

28

Process of B cell activation and class switching?

-Helper T cell is activated

-B cell endocytoses foreign antigen; presents it on MHC II. Recognized by TCR on Th cell. (signal 1)

-B cell's CD40 receptor binds the T cell's CD40 ligand (signal 2)

-Th cell secretes cytokines. -->  determines Ig class switching of the B cell. B cell activates, undergoes class switching, affinity matulration and antibody production.

29

Th1 cells secrete what? activate what? inhibited by what?

Secrete IFN-gamma & IL-2

Activate macrophages and cytotoxic T cells

Inhibited by IL4 and IL10 (from Th2 cell)

30

Th2 cells secrete what?

recruits what?

inhibited by what?

secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13

Recruit eosinophils for parasite defense, and promote IgE production by B cells

Inhibited by IFN-gamma (from Th1 cell)