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Flashcards in Immunology- Foundations Deck (83)
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1

Antigens

-Anything that causes an immune response
-->bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or smaller proteins

2

Antibody (immunoglobulin or Ig)

-Protein molecule created by our immune system to target an antigen for destruction

3

Cytokines

-Cell-to-Cell communication proteins that control cell development, differentiation, and movement to a specific part of the body
-Produced by leukocytes

4

Interleukins

-13 Cytokines that are regulators of immune responses, inflammatory reactions, and hematopoiesis

5

What are IL's 1 & 6 responsible for?

Fever

6

What does IL-6 cause?

"acute-phase response"

7

Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)

-Activates neutrophils
-Mediates septic shock
-Causes tumor necrosis

8

What are Chemokines?

-Type of cytokine released by infected/injured cells

9

What do Chemokines initiate?

-An immune response by signaling circulating neutrophils and macrophages
-Warn neighboring cells of the threat

10

Interferons (IFN)

-Block/interfere virus replication
-Alpha, beta, and gamma subtypes

11

What is the strongest IFN?

IFN-y
-Produced by T cells
-Activates macrophages, natural killer cells and neutrophils

12

Define shock

Diffuse inflammation in the system

13

Type I interferons

-Alpha and Beta forms
-Function: Induce viral resistance in cells
-Can be produced by almost any cell type in the body

14

Type II Interferons

-Y form
-Secreted ONLY by natural killer cells and T lymphocytes
-Man Function: Signal the immune system to respond to agents or cancerous growth

15

Type I interferon disadvantages

-May actually suppress the immune response
-->important when we talk about things like HIV

16

The immune system

1. Barriers= Skin, coughing
2. Recognition= foreign/mutated cells, recognition of proteins or polypeptides on the surface to recognize foreign cells
3. Destruction=phagocytosis, lysis

17

Innate Immune system

-"Natural immune system"
-Fast, non-specific
-Inflammation, swelling, pus

18

Adaptive Immune system

-Specific, "humoral", "cell-mediated"
-Slow

19

Hematopoiesis

Formation and development of the cells that make up "blood"
-Embryo and fetus: occurs in liver, spleen, thymus
-Birth-Adult: occurs primarily in bone marrow

20

Where is bone marrow primarily produced in children?

Long bones

21

Where is bone marrow primarily produced in adults?

Sternum and pelvis (axial skeleton)

22

Leukocyte

WBC (granulocytes, plasma cells, lymphocytes)

23

Lymphocytes

Subset of leukocytes

24

Thrombocytes

platelets

25

Erythrocytes

RBC's

26

Describe the components of the skin physical barrier

-Protects against invasion
-Acidic pH of sweat
-FA's and enzymes from pores/follicles

27

What do tears, saliva and mucus all have that aids in the protection as a physical barrier?

Lysozyme= protects against gram (+) bacteria

28

Explain the role of Adhesion Molecules

-Membrane proteins that connect cells to other cells or the ECM
-Recruitment of neutrophils to the site of inflammation

29

What results from chronic inflammation?

Chronic cytokine release and leukocyte infiltration-->release of lysozyme and free radicals---> TISSUE DAMAGE

30

What is the second line of defense in the innate immune system?

Granulocytes= Basophils, eoisinophils, neutrophils

31

Explain Basophil's role

-Circulate in bloodstream
-Allergic and helminth response
-Release histamine and heparin

32

PMN

Polymorphoneucolytes= neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

33

Explain the role of Eosinophils

-Circulate in bloodstream and present in organs (GI tract and respiratory tract)
-Release H202 and other Oxygen Radicals to kill Microbes
-->Viruses, parasites (helminths)
-Release Leukotrienes
-->lipid signaling molecules that cause airway smooth muscle contraction
-Active in allergic reactions, asthma
-Stimulate T lymphocytes (adaptive immune system)
-Act as "antigen presenting cells" (APC)
-Weakly phagocytic

34

What is the most abundant granulocyte?

Neutrophils

35

Who are the "first responders" of granulocytes?

Neutrophils

36

What would you expect to be elevated in a bacterial or fungal infection?

Neutrophils

37

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETS)

Throw out extracellular fibers that bind bacteria

38

What does Neutrophils recruit?

Monocytes and macrophages
-->monocytes are the precursors to macrophages

39

What does Neutrophils release?

Cytokines to recruit monocytes and macrophages

40

Chemotoxins

Neutrophils respond to chemokines

41

What do Mast cells release?

-Histamine
-Significant Heparin!!
*Causes inflammatory cascade

42

Where do mast cells mature?

In tissues

43

When will mast cells degranulate?

-Injury
-Encounters antigen or allergen
-Exposed to complement proteins

44

Which granulocyte causes anaphylaxis?

Mast cells (because there are so many of them)

45

Anaphylaxis symptoms

*Body-wide vasodilation
-Edema (laryngeal)
-Decreased BP
-N/V/Abdominal pain
-HTN and massive organ failure b/c your aren't profusing organs

46

Myeloid Stem Cells

-Erythrocyte (RBC's)
-Thrombocyte (platelets)
-Myeloblast
-Granulocytes (Basophil, Neutrophil, Eoisinophil, mast cell )
-Monocyte: Macrophages and Dendritic cells

47

Lymphoid Stem Cells

-Natural Killer Cells
-T and B Lymphocytes
-Plasma Cell

48

Where are monocytes stored in the body?

Spleen

49

What are the 3 primary functions of monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells?

1. Phagocytosis
2. Antigen presentation (APC's)
3. Cytokine production

50

Who is the strongest of the APC's?

Dendritic Cells
-->Antigens are captured by dendritic cells
-->Migrate to nearest lymph node and present antigen to T cells and B cells

51

Langerhans cells

Specialized dendritic cells in skin
-may be initial cellular targets in the sexual transmission of HIV
-target, reservoir, and vector of dissemination

52

What are the 3 stages of readiness in Macrophages?

1. Resting- Cleaning up cellular debris
2. Primed- Activated by injury (cytokines)
3. Hyper-activated-Very initial hyper-inflammatory phase of infection

53

Kupffer cells

-Specialized macrophages w/in liver
-Destroy bacteria and old RBC's

54

What is the result of chronic activation of Kupffer cells?

-Due to toxins, alcohol
-Leads to overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and chronic inflammation
*Result= liver cell damage and cancer

55

Natural Killer Cells

-Cytotoxic lymphocytes
-Active against viruses and cancerous cells
-Contain granules that contain destructive enzymes

56

How do NK cells kill their target?

-Release performs and proteases=cause membrane lysis
-Trigger Apoptosis in target cell

57

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Proteins

"Human leukocyte antigen"
-Cell surface molecules which help the immune system to determine if a protein is "self" or "not-self"
-Bind antigen to cell surface and display for recognition by T cells

58

3 key points of MHC proteins

1. Determines organ donation compatibility
2. Autoimmune dz is a malfunction in this recognition system
3. Participates in T and B cell activation

59

Acute Phase Proteins

-Produced by liver in response to inflammation induced release of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF
-Identify or "mark" pathogens or injured cells for destruction

60

Acute Phase Proteins

-C-reactive protein (CRP)= non-specific
-Mannose-Binding lectin (MBL)
-Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein

61

Complement System (Complement Cascade)

-Enhances the ability of phagocytic cells to destroy pathogens
-Made by liver
-Activated by Antigens

62

What is the most abundant complement protein in humans?

C3

63

What are the complement activation pathways?

1. Classical-Requires triggering
2. Alternative- Continuously activated @ low level
3. Lectin Pathway

64

Functions of Complement

1. Opsonization-Enhancing phagocytosis of antigens by "marking" them for destruction
2. Chemotaxis-Attracting and activating macrophages and neutrophils
-->inducing Mast cells and Basophils to degranulate
3. Lysis- Rupturing pathogen cell-membranes by forming Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)

65

Complement "Fixation"

-Antigen combines w/ an antibody and it's complement, causing the complement factor to become inactive or fixed

66

Membrane Attack Complex

-C5b forms a complex w/ C6, C7, C8, C9
-Lysis of cell by disrupting osmotic balance

67

Adaptive Immunity

Antibodies: Each only recognize ONE antigen

68

Adaptive Immunity Functions

-Directly block binding of the invader to cells
-Inactivate viruses and neutralize toxins
-Opsonization

69

What does increased IgM indicate?

-Recent exposure to antigen

70

What is the initial antibody that is produced?

-IgM=Primary Response

71

IgG

-Formed late in the primary immune response
-Longest half-life of the Ig's (~23 days)
-Used for passive immunization against rabies and hepatitis

72

What is the only class that crosses the placenta?

IgG

73

Polyclonal AB

-Prepared from immunized animals
-Each AB can interact/bind w/ multiple sites on antigen

74

Monoclonal AB

-Produced in lab
-Bind only to one site on an antigen

75

Where are IgA's primarily found?

External secretions=Barrier System

76

Hyper-sensitivity reactions IgE

Pt's with hyper IgE profile/syndrome of overproduction of this antibody are prone to massive anaphylaxis reactions

77

Hyper IgM Syndrome

Produces tons of IgM, never convert to IgG so you don’t have a long lasting immune system AND all of the IgM crowds out the rest of Ig’s
*Considered myloproliferative disorder

78

Primary Lymphoid Organs

Where immature lymphocytes (B & T ) grow up and proliferate
-Thymus (T cells) in children
-Bone marrow

79

Secondary Lymphoid Organs

Where antigens are presented to mature B &T lymphocytes to initiate adaptive immune response
-Spleen
-Lymph nodes
-Tonsils and adenoids (lymphatic tissues)
-Appendix

80

B- Cells (lymphocytes)

Eliminate Extracellular pathogens

81

T-Cells (lymphocytes)

Destroy intracellular pathogens

82

"Killer" T-cells

-CD-8
-Cytotoxic
-Identify and kill cells INFECTED w/ viruses

83

"Helper" T-cells

-CD-4
-Raise the "alarm" via Cytokines