Flashcards in Immunology Small Group sessions Deck (20)
Mast cells are agranular. True/ False?
Mast cells have large granules in their cytoplasms
What is tryptase and why can it be used as a diagnostic tool for allergic reaction?
It's a secretory granule released by mast cells upon their degranulation. It is stable enough to be used as a diagnostic tool (histamine is not stable enough). Measuring IgE and specific IgE levels is also diagnostically useful.
Haemolysis is typical of type _ hypersensitivity?
3 (complement-mediated reactions)
Less antigen is needed to trigger an anaphylactic reaction than an immune complex reaction. True/ False?
Also, an excess of antigen in relation to Ig levels is required for immune complex formation
Granulomas are classic of type _ reactions?
Complement activation is a key part of all hypersensitivity reactions, EXCEPT type _?
What is Goodpasture's syndrome AKA antiglomerular basement antibody disease?
A rare autoimmune disease in which Ig attacks the basement membrane in lungs and kidneys - leading to bleeding from lungs and kidney failure
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease due to Ig being directed against acetylcholine receptors. What type of hypersensitivity is this?
Which type of hypersensitivity occurs in response to soluble antigens?
If a patient with asthma gets no relief from anti-histamines, what mediator is most likely to be causing their symptoms?
These are (in addition to histamine) released from mast cells, and can mediate many of the pathological effects associated with asthma
Vasculitis is a common feature of which type of hypersensitivity?
3 (this type involves IgG and complement)
Neutrophils are associated with allergy. True/ False?
What are the only 2 cells which bind IgE?
mast cells and eosinophils (they bind to the Fc region on Ig)
Which mediators induce fever?
TNFa and other pro-inflammatory cytokines
Sodium cromoglycate can be used to treat type 1 hypersensitivity. How?
It is a mast cell stabiliser which prevents mast cell degranulation
How do activated T helper cells stimulate B cells to proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells (which then produce IgE)?
T helper cells produce cytokines
In type 1 hypersensitivity, what causes wheeze?
-mast cell degranulation (causes the constriction)
-histamine released from degranulation
CD45+ is a lineage marker for what type of cell?
CD3- is a lineage marker for what type of cell?
CD3-CD9+ = B cells
CD3-CD16+CD56+ = NK cells